This article evaluates the hypothesis that various stress management techniques have specific effects. Studies comparing various techniques are reviewed, as well as previous literature reviews evaluating the effects of individual techniques. There is evidence that cognitively oriented methods have specific cognitive effects, that specific autonomic effects result from autonomically oriented methods, and that specific muscular effects are produced by muscularly oriented methods. Muscle relaxation and/or EMG biofeedback have greater muscular effects and smaller autonomic effects than finger temperature biofeedback and/or autogenic training. EMG biofeedback produces greater effects on particular muscular groups than progressive relaxation, and thermal biofeedback has greater finger temperature effects than autogenic training. Disorders with a predominant muscular component (e.g., tension headaches) are treated more effectively by muscularly oriented methods, while disorders in which autonomic dysfunction predominates (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches) are more effectively treated by techniques with a strong autonomic component. Anxiety and phobias tend to be most effectively treated by methods with both strong cognitive and behavioral components.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Achterberg, J., Kenner, C., & Lawlis, G. F. (1988). Severe burn injury: A comparison of relaxation, imagery, and biofeedback for pain management.Journal of Mental Imagery, 12, 71–87.
Achmon, J., Granek, M., Golomb, M., & Hart, J. (1989). Behavioral treatment of essential hypertension: A comparison between cognitive therapy and biofeedback of heart rate.Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 152–164.
Adler, C. S., & Morrisey-Adler, S. (1983). Strategies in general psychiatry. In J. Basmajian (ed.).Biofeedback—Principles and practice for clinicians. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Alstrom, J. E., Nordlung, C. L., Persson, G., Harding, M., & Ljungqvist, C. (1984). Effects of four treatment methods on social phobic patients not suitable for insight-oriented psychotherapy.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 70, 97–110
Agras, S., & Jacob, R. (1979). Hypertension. In O. F. Pomerleau & J. P. Brady.Behavioral medicine: Theory and practice. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Agras, W. S., Southam, M. A., & Taylor, C. B. (1983). Long-term persistence of relaxation-induced blood pressure lowering during the working day.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 792–794.
Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. C., Southam, M. A., & Schneider, J. A. (1987). Relaxation training for essential hypertension at the worksite: II. The poorly controlled hypertensive.Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 264–273.
Aivazyan, T. A., Zaitsev, V. P., Salenko, B. B., Yurenev, A. O., & Patrusheva, I. F. (1988). Efficacy of relaxation techniques in hypertensive patients. Fifth joint USA-USSR symposium on arterial hypertension.Health Psychology, 7 (supplement), 193–200.
Amerikaner, M., & Summerlin, M. L. (1982). Group counseling with learning disabled children: Effects of social skills and relaxation training on self-concept and classroom behavior.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 340–343.
Amodei, N., Nelson, R. O., Jarrett, R. B., & Sigmon, S. (1987). Psychological treatments of dysmenorrhea: differential effectiveness for spasmodics and congestives.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 18, 95–103.
Andrasik, F., & Blanchard, E. B. (1987). Task force report on the biofeedback treatment of tension headache. In J. P. Hatch, J. D. Rugh, & J. G. Fisher (Eds.),Biofeedback studies in clinical efficacy (pp. 281–321). New York: Plenum Press.
Andrasik, F., Blanchard, E. B., Arena, J. G., Teders, S. J., Teevan, R. C., & Rodichok, L. D. (1982). Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 171–182.
Andrews, G., MacMahon, S. W., Austin, A., & Byrne, D. G. (1982). Hypertension: comparison of drug and non-drug treatments.British Medical Journal, 284, 1523–1526.
Aponte, J. F., & Aponte, C. E. (1971). Group programmed desensitization without the simultaneous presentation of aversive scenes with relaxation training.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 9, 337–346.
Bakal, D. A. (1975). Headache: A biopsychological perspective.Psychological Bulletin, 82, 369–382.
Balick, L., Elfner, L., May, J., & Moore, J. D. (1982). Biofeedback treatment of dysmenorrhea.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7, 499–520.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
Barlow, D. H., Craske, M., Cerny, J., & Klosko, J. (1989). Behavioral treatment of panic disorder.Behavior Therapy, 20, 261–282.
Barlow, D. H., Rapee, R. M., & Brown, T. A. (1992). Behavioral treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.Behavior Therapy, 23, 551–570.
Beaty, E. T. (1976). Feedback-assisted relaxation training as a treatment for peptic ulcers.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 323–324.
Beaty, E. T., & Haynes, S. N. (1979). Behavioral intervention with muscle-contraction headache: A review.Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 165–179.
Beck, A. T. (1993). Cognitive approaches to stress. In P. M. Lehrer and R. L. Woolfolk (eds.),Principles and practice of stress management. 2nd edition. New York: Guilford.
Beiman, I., Israel, E., & Johnson, S. A. (1978). During training and posttraining effects of live and taped extended progressive relaxation, self-relaxation, and electromyogram biofeedback.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 314–321.
Bell, J. S. (1979). The use of EEG theta biofeedback in the treatment of a patient with sleep-onset insomnia.Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 4, 229–236.
Bennink, C. D., Hulst, L. L., & Benthem, J. A. (1982). The effect of EMG biofeedback and relaxation training on primary dysmenorrhea.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 329–341.
Benson, H. (1975).The relaxation response. New York: William Morrow and Company.
Berger, B. G., Freidmann, E., & Eaton, M. (1988). Comparison of jogging, the relaxation response, and group interaction for stress reduction.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 431–447.
Bernstein, D. A., & Carlson, C. R. (1993). Progressive relaxation: Abbreviated methods. In P. M. Lehrer, & R. L. Woolfolk (Eds.).Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Bernthal, J. R. (1977).EMG biofeedback, thermal biofeedback, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of examination anxiety of adult education students. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977,38A, 1292–1293. University Microfilms order No. 77-17,952.
Beyerstein, B. L. (1990). Brainscams: Neuromythologies of the New Age. Special Issue: Unvalidated, fringe, and fraudulent treatment of mental disorders.International Journal of Mental Health, 19, 27–36.
Blanchard, E. B. (1979). Biofeedback: A selective review of clinical applications in behavioral medicine. In R. McNemara (Ed.),Behavioral approaches to medicine: Application and analysis. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 131–190.
Blanchard, E. B. (1992). Psychological treatment of benign headache disorders.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 537–551.
Blanchard, E. B., & Andrasik, F. (1987). Biofeedback treatment of vascular headache. In J. P. Hatch, J. D. Rugh, & J. G. Fisher (Eds.),Biofeedback Studies in Clinical Efficacy (pp. 1–79). New York: Plenum Press.
Blanchard, E. B., Andrasik, F., Evans, D. D., Neff, D. F., Appelbaum, K. A., & Rodichok, L. D. (1985). Behavioral treatment of 250 chronic headache patients: A clinical replication series.Behavior Therapy, 16, 308–327.
Blanchard, E. B., Andrasik, F., Neff, D. F., Teders, S. J., Pallmeyer, T. P., Arena, J. G., Jurish, S. E., Saunders, N. L., Ahles, T. A., & Rodichok, L. D. (1982). Sequential comparisons of relaxation training and biofeedback in the treatment of three kinds of chronic headache or, the machines may be necessary some of the time.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 469–481.
Blanchard, E. B., Appelbaum, K. A., Radnitz, C. L., Morrill, B., Michultka, D., Kirsch, C., Guarnieri, P., Hillhouse, J., Evans, Jaccard, J., & Barron, K. D. (1990). A controlled evaluation of thermal biofeedback combined with cognitive therapy in the treatment of vascular headache.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 216–224.
Blanchard, E. B., McCoy, G. C., Andrasik, F., Acerra, M., Pallmeyer, T. P., Gerardi, R., Halpern, M., & Musso, A. (1984). Preliminary results from a controlled evaluation of thermal biofeedback as a treatment for essential hypertension.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 471–495.
Blanchard, E. B., McCoy, G. C., Musso, A., Gerardi, M. A., Pallmeyer, T. P., Gerardi, R., Cotch, P. A., Siracusa, K., & Andrasik, F. (1986). A controlled comparison of thermal biofeedback and relaxation training in the treatment of essential hypertension: I. Short term and long term outcome.Behavior Therapy, 17, 563–579.
Blanchard, E. B., Khramelashvili, V. V., McCoy, G. C., Aivazyan, T. A., McCaffrey, R. J., Salenko, B. B., Musso, A., Wittrock, D. A., Berger, M., Gerardi, M. A., & Pangburn, L. (1988a). The USA-USSR collaborative cross-cultural comparison of autogenic training and thermal biofeedback in the treatment of mild hypertension.Health Psychology, 7 (Suppl., 175–192.
Blanchard, E. B., McCoy, G. C., Wittrock, D., Musso, A., Gerardi, R. J., & Pagburn, L. (1988b). A controlled comparison of thermal biofeedback and relaxation training in the treatment of essential hypertension: II. Effects of cardiovascular reactivity.Health Psychology, 7, 19–33.
Blanchard, E. B., Radnitz, C., Schwarz, S. P., Neff, D. F., & Gerardi, M. A. (1987). Psychological changes associated with self-regulatory treatments of irritable bowel syndrome.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 12, 31–38.
Blanchard, E. B., & Schwarz, S. P. (1988). Two-year follow-up of behavioral treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Behavior Therapy, 19, 67–73.
Blanchard, E. B., Schwarz, S. P., Suls, J. M., Gerardi, M. A., Scharff, L., Greene, B., Taylor, A. E., Berreman, C., & Malamood, H. S. (1992). Two controlled evaluations of multicomponent psychological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 175–189.
Borkovec, T. D. (1982). Insomnia.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 880–895.
Borgeat, F., Stravynski, A., & Chaloult, L. (1983). The influence of two different sets of information and suggestions on the subjective effects of relaxation.Journal of Human Stress, 9, 40–45.
Bott, R. A. (1979). A study of complex learning: Theory and methodologies.Dissertation Abstracts International, 40(1-B), 471.
Breger, C., & McGaugh, J. I. (1965). Critique and reformulation of learning theory approaches to psychotherapy and neuroses.Psychological Bulletin, 63, 338–358.
Brooks, G. R., & Richardson, F. C. (1980). Emotional skills training: a treatment program for duodenal ulcer.Behavior Therapy, 11, 198–207.
Brown, B. B. (1970). Recognition of aspects of consciousness through association with EEG alpha activity represented by a light signal.Psychophysiology, 7, 451–464.
Cain, J. A. (1987).Anger control: A comparison of cognitive-behavioral and relaxation training, with posttreatment followup. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, United States International University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1804B.
Carlson, C. R., Bacaseta, P. E., & Simanton, D. A. (1988). A controlled evaluation of devotional meditation and progressive relaxation.Journal of Psychology and Theology, 16, 362–368.
Carrington, P. (1993). Modern forms of meditation. In Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. L. (Eds.),Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Chang-Liang, R., & Denney, D. R. (1976). Applied relaxation as training in self control.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23, 183–189.
Chappel, M. N., Stafano, J. J., Rogerson, J. S., & Pike, F. H. (1936). The value of group psychological procedures in the treatment of peptic ulcer.American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 3, 813–817.
Chesney, M. A., Black, G. W., Swan, G. E. & Ward, M. M. (1987). Relaxation training for essential hypertension at the Worksite I. The untreated mild hypertensive.Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 250–263.
Chensey, M. A., & Shelton, J. L. (1976). A comparison of muscle relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback treatments for muscle contraction headaches.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 7, 221–225.
Chesney, M. A., & Tasto, D. (1975). The effectiveness of behavior modification for spasmodic and congestive dysmenorrhea.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 240–253.
Clark, D. M., Salkovskis, P. M., Hackman, A., & Gelder, M. (1991). Long-term outcome of cognitive therapy for panic disorder. Paper presented at the 25thAnnual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. New York, November.
Cohen, J. & Sedlacek, K. (1983). Attention and autonomic self-regulation.Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 243–257.
Cohen, M. J., McArthur, D. L., & Rickles, W. H. (1980). Comparison of four biofeedback treatments for migraine headache: Psychological and headache variables.Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 463–480.
Cohen, R. (1983). Psychophysiological response patterns in vascular and muscle-contraction headaches.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 93–107.
Comer, J. F. (1977).Meditation and progressive relaxation in the treatment of test anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,38B, 6142. University Microfilms order No. 7809340.
Cooke, G. (1968). Evaluation of the efficacy of the components of reciprocal inhibition psychotherapy.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 464–467.
Cott, A., Pavloski, R. P., & Goldman, J. A. (1981). Cortical alpha rhythm, biofeedback, and the determinants of subjective state.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 381–397.
Coursey, R. D., Frankel, B. L., Gaarder, K. R., & Mott, D. E. (1980). A comparison of relaxation techniques with electrosleep for chronic, sleep-onset insomnia: A sleep-EEG study.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5, 57–73.
Craske, M. G., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1991). Behavioral treatment of panic disorder: A two-year follow-up.Behavior Therapy, 22, 289–304.
Curtis, W. D., & Wessberg, H. W. (1980). A comparison of heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response among medtiators, relaxers, and controls.Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, 2, 319–324.
Cuthbert, B., Kristeller, J., Simons, R., Hodes, R., & Lang, P. J. (1981). Strategies of arousal and control: Motivation, meditation, and biofeedback.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 518–546.
Daly, E. J., Donn, P. A., Galliher, M. J., & Zimmerman, J. S. (1983). Biofeedback applications of migraine and tension headaches: a double-blinded outcome study.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 135–152.
Dantzer, R. (1991). Stress and disease: A psychobiological perspective.Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 205–210.
Datey, K. K., Deshmukh, S. N., Dalvi, C. P., & Vinekar, S. L. (1969). “Shavasan": A yogic exercise in the management of hypertension.Angiology, 20, 325–33.
Davis, M. H., Saunders, D. R., Creer, T. L., & Chai, H. (1973). Relaxation training facilitated by biofeedback apparatus as a supplemental treatment in bronchial asthma.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 17, 121–128.
Davidson, R. J., & Schwartz, G. E. (1976). Psychobiology of relaxation and related states. In Mostofsky, D. (Ed.),Behavior modification and control of physiological activity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
DeBerry, S. (1979).The effect of EMG biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation and cognitive style on muscle tension and anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Long Island University.Dissertation Abstracts International (1979),40, 1357B. University Microfilms No. 78-18,482.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1988). Cognitive-relaxation and social skills treatments of anger: A year later.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 234–236.
Deffenbacher, J. L., Demm, P. M., & Brandon, A. D. (1986). High general anger: Correlates and treatment.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 481–489.
Deffenbacher, J. L., Story, D. A., Stark, R. S., Hogg, J. A., & Brandon, A. D. (1987). Cognitive-relaxation and social skills interventions in the treatment of general anger.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 171–176.
Delmonte, M. M. (1984). Electrocortical activity and related phenomena associated with meditation practice: A literature review.International Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 217–231.
Delmonte, M. M. (1986). Meditation as a clinical intervention strategy: A brief review.International Journal of Psychosomatics, 33, 9–12.
Denney, D. R., & Gerrard, M. (1981). Behavioral treatments of primary dysmenorrhea: A review.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 303–312.
deRuiter, C., Rijken, H., Garssen, B., & Kraaimaat, K. (1989). Breathing retraining, exposure, and a combination of both in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 647–655.
Detrick, P. F. (1977).Demonstration and comparison of the efficacy of EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation versus autogenic feedback training for the treatment of tension headaches. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,38B, 5009. University Microfilms order no. 7802902.
Dogariu, J. G. (1991).A comparison of cognitive therapy plus study skills with systematic desensitization plus study skills in the treatment of test anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 1259–1260A.
Drummand, P. D., & Lance, J. W. (1984). Clinical diagnosis and computer analysis of headache symptoms.Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 47, 128–13.
Duson, B. M. (1976).Effectiveness of relaxation-desensitization and cognitive restructuring in teaching the self-management of menstrual symptoms to college women. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977,37B, 6322. University Microfilms order no. 77-11,508.
English, E. H., & Baker, T. B. (1983). Relaxation training and cardiovascular response to experimental stressors.Health Psychology, 2, 239–259.
Eppley, K. R., Abrams, A. I. & Shear, J. (1989). Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 957–974.
Epstein, D. (1987).Aerobic activity versus group cognitive therapy: an evaluative study of contrasting interventions for the alleviation of clinical depression. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno.Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 3952B.
Espie, C. A. (1987).A controlled comparative investigation of psychological treatments for chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom).Dissertations Abstracts International, 53, 1641B. University Microfilms No. ADGDX-96272).
Fee, R. A., & Girdano, D. A. (1978). The relative effectiveness of three techniques to induce the trophotropic response.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 145–157.
Feely, T. M. (1978).The effects of electromyographic biofeedback training and EMG biofeedback with progressive relaxation training on narcotics addicts during medical detoxification. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Saint Louis University,Dissertation Abstracts International, 39B, 1474–1475.
Ford, M. R., Stroebel, C. F., Strong, P., & Szarek, B. L. (1982). Quieting response training: Treatment of psychophysiological disorders in psychiatric inpatients.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7, 331–339.
Fray, J. M. (1975).Implications of electromyographic biofeedback for essential hypertensive patients. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Tech University.Dissertation Abstracts International (1978),39, 3036B. University Microfilm No. 75-26 839.
Freedman, R. R. (1985). Behavioral treatment of Raynaud's disease and phenomenon.Advances in Microcirculation, 12, 138–156.
Freedman, R. R. (1989). Quantitative measurements of finger blood flow during behavioral treatments of Raynaud's disease.Psychophysiology, 26, 437–441.
Freedman, R. R. (1987). Long-term effectiveness of behavioral treatments for Raynaud's disease.Behavior Therapy, 18, 387–399.
Freedman, R. R. (1991). Physiological mechanisms of temperature biofeedback.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 16, 95–116.
Freedman, R. R., & Ianni, P. (1983). Self-control of digital temperature: Physiological factors and transfer effects.Psychophysiology, 20, 682–689.
Freedman, R., Ianni, P., & Wenig, P. (1985). Behavioral treatment of Raynaud's disease: Long-term follow-up.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 136.
Freedman, R. R., Keegan, D., Rodriguez, J., & Galloway, M. P. (1993). Plasma catecholamine levels during temperature biofeedback training in normal subjects.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18, 107–114.
Freedman, R. R., Lynn, S. J., Ianni, P., & Hale, P. A. (1981). Biofeedback treatment of Raynaud's disease and phenomenon.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 355–365.
Freeling, N. W., & Shemberg, K. M. (1970). The alleviation of test anxiety by systematic desensitization.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 293–299.
Fremont, J., & Craighead, L. W. (1987). Aerobic exercise and cognitive therapy in the treatment of dysphoric moods.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 241–251.
Friedman, A. P. (1962). Ad Hoc Committee on the Classification of Headache.Journal of the American Medical Association, 179, 717–718.
Frumkin, K., Nathan, R. J., Prout, M. F., & Cohen, M. C. (1978). Nonpharmacologic control of essential hypertension in man: A critical review of the experimental literature.Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 294–320.
Fuller, G. D. (1977).Biofeedback: Methods and procedures in clinical practice. San Francisco: Biofeedback Press.
Funk, S. C. (1989).A comparison of multimodal stress management training with applied relaxation as adjuncts to cardiac rehabilitation (relaxation, stress management). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas.Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 3563B. University Microfilms No. ADG90-24171.
Gallois, P. (1984a). Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. [Neurophysiological and respiratory changes induced by relaxation.]Encephale, 10, 139–144.
Gallois, P., Forzy, G., & Dhont, J. L. (1984b). Changements hormonaux durant la relaxation. [Hormonal changes induced by relaxation.]Encephale, 10, 79–82.
Gamble, E. H., & Elder, S. T. (1983). Multimodal biofeedback in the treatment of migraine.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 383–392.
Gardner, K. R., & Montgomery, P. S. (1977).Clinical biofeedback: A procedural manual. Baltimore: William and Wilkins.
Gershman, L., & Clouser, R. A. (1974). Treating insomnia with relaxation and desensitization in a group setting by an automated approach.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 31–35.
Gilbert, G. S., Parker, J. C., & Clairborn, C. D. (1978). Differential mood changes in alcoholics as a function of anxiety management strategies.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 29–232.
Gillin, J. C., Spinweber, C. L., & Johnson, L. C. (1989). Rebound insomnia: A critical review.Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9, 161–172.
Glasgow, M. S., Gaarder, K. R., and Engel, R. D. (1982). Behavioral treatment of high blood pressure II. Acute and sustained effects of relaxation and systolic blood pressure biofeedback.Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 155–170.
Glass, G. V., McGaw, B., & Smith, M. L. (1981).Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Glaus, K. D., & Kotses, H. (1983). Facial muscle tension influences lung airway resistance; limb muscle tension does not.Biological Psychology, 17, 105–120.
Glueck, B., & Stroebel, C. (1975). Biofeedback and meditation in the treatment of psychiatric illness.Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16, 303–321.
Gold, P. W., Goodwin, F. K., & Chrousos, G. P. (1988). Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression: Relation of the neurobiology of stress.New England Journal of Medicine, 319(7), 413–420.
Goldfried, M. R., & Trier, C. S. (1974). Effectiveness of relaxation as an active coping skill.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 348–355.
Goldstein, I. B. (1982). Biofeedback in the treatment of hypertension. In L. White, & B. Tursky (Eds.),Clinical biofeedback: Efficacy and mechanisms. New York: The Guilford Press.
Goldstein, I. B., Shapiro, D., & Thananopavarn, C. (1984). Home relaxation techniques for essential hypertension.Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 399–414.
Goldstein, M. G., & Niaura, R. (1992). Psychological factors affecting physical condition: Cardiovascular disease literature review.Psychosomatics, 33, 134–145.
Hafner, R. J (1982). Psychological treatment of essential hypertension: A controlled comparison of meditation and meditation plus biofeedback.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7, 305–316.
Harding, A. V., & Maher, K. R. (1982). Biofeedback training of cardiac acceleration; Effects on airway resistance in bronchial asthma.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 26, 447–454.
Harver, A., & Kotses. H. (1984). Pulmonary changes induced by frontal EMG training.Biological Psychology, 18, 3–10.
Hauri, P. (1981). Treating psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback.Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 752–758.
Hawkins, R. C., Doell, S. R., Lindseth, P., Jeffers, V., & Skaggs, S. (1980). Anxiety reduction in hospitalized schizophrenics through thermal biofeedback and relaxation training.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51, 475–482.
Haynes, S. N., Moseley, D., & McGowan, W. (1975). Relaxation and biofeedback training in the reduction of frontalis muscle tension.Psychophysiology, 12, 547–552.
Haynes, S. N., Sides, H., & Lockwood, G. (1977). Relaxation instruction and frontalis electromyographic feedback intervention with sleep-onset insomnia.Behavior Therapy, 8, 644–652.
Hazaleus, S. L., & Deffenbacher, J. L. (1986). Relaxation and cognitive treatments of anger.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 222–226.
Heczey, M. D. (1977).Effects of biofeedback and autogenic training on menstrual experiences: Relationships among anxiety, locus of control and dysmenorrhea. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, The City University of New York,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,38B, 5571. University Microfilms order No. 7805763.
Heczey, M. O. (1980). Effects of biofeedback and autogenic training on dysmenorrhea. In A. J. Dan, E. A. Graham, & C. P. Beecher (Eds.),The menstrual cycle: A synthesis of interdisciplinary research (Vol. 1). New York: Springer.
Hedberg, A., & Campbell, L. (1974). A comparison of four behavioral treatments of alcoholism.Journal of Behavior Research and Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 251–256.
Hibbert, G., & Pilsbury, D. (1988). Demonstration and treatment of hyperventilation causing asthma.British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 687–689.
Hill, M. N., & Russell, R. P. (1988). Revision of guidelines for high blood pressure management: JNC IV. Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.Maryland Medical Journal, 37, 698–701.
Hislop, I. G. (1980). Effect of very brief psychotherapy on the irritable bowel syndrome.Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 620–623.
Hoag, N. L. (1988).A test of specific and nonspecific effects in behavioral treatments of pediatric migraine. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Kent State University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 1110B.
Hohne, F., & Bohn, M. (1988). Biofeedback ohne Technikerteam einfach und kostengunstig. (Biofeedback without a team of technicians simple and cost effective.)Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie, 40, 421–425.
Holroyd, K. A. (1979). Stress, coping, and the treatment of stress-related illness. In J. R. McNamara (Ed.),Behavioral approaches to medicine: Application and analysis. New York, Plenum pp. 191–226.
Holroyd, K. A., & Andrasik, F. (1982). Do the effects of cognitive therapy endure? A two-year follow-up of tension headache sufferers treated with cognitive therapy or biofeedback.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 325–334.
Holroyd, K. A., & Penzien, D. B. (1986). Client variables and the behavioral treatment of recurrent tension headache: A meta-analytic review.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 515–536.
Huber, H. P., & Huber, D. (1979). Autogenic training and rational-emotive therapy for long-term migraine patients—An explorative study of a therapy.Behavior Analysis and Modification, 3, 169–177.
Hurwitz, L. R., Kahane, J., & Mathieson, C. (1986). The effect of EMG biofeedback and progressive muscle relaxation on the reduction of test anxiety.Educational and Psychological Research, 6, 291–298.
Hutchings, D. F., & Reinking, R. H. (1976). Tension headaches: What form of therapy is most effective?Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 2, 183–190.
Jacob, R. G., Chesney, M. A., Williams, D. M., Ding, Y., & Shapiro, A. (1991). Relaxation therapy for hypertension: Design effects and treatment effects.Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 5–17.
Jacob, R. G., Fortmann, S. P., Kraemer, H. C., Farquahar, J. W., & Agras, W. S. (1985). Combining behavioral treatments to reduce blood pressure: A controlled outcome study.Behavior Modification, 9, 32–54.
Jacob, R. G., Shapiro, A. P., Reeves, R. A., Johnson, A. M., McDonald, R. H., & Coburn, C. (1986). Relaxation therapy for hypertension: Comparison of effects of concomitant placebo, diuretic and beta-blocker.Archives of Internal Medicine, 146, 2335–2340.
Jacobson, E. (1938).Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Janssen, K., & Neutgens, J. (1986). Autogenic training and progressive relaxation in the treatment of three kinds of headache.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 199–208.
Janson-Bjerklie, S., & Clarke. E. (1982). The effects of biofeedback training on bronchial diameter in asthma.Heart and Lung, 11, 200–207.
Kamiya, J. (1969). Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm and some of its reported effects on consciousness. In C. T. Tart (Ed.),Altered states of consciousness: A book of readings. New York: Wiley, pp. 507–517.
King, N. J. (1980). The behavioral management of asthma and asthma-related problems in children: A critical review of the literature.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 3, 169–189.
Jobe, J. B., Sampson, J. B. Roberts, D. E., & Beetham, W. P. (1982). Induced vasodilation as treatment for Raynaud's disease.Annals of Internal Medicine, 97, 706–709.
Jobe, J. B., Sampson, J. B., Roberts, D. E., & Kelly, J. A. (1986). Comparison of behavioral treatments for Raynaud's disease.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 89–96.
Johnson, S. M., & Sechrest, L. (1968). Comparison of desensitization and progressive relaxation in treating anxiety.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 280–286.
Kahn, J. S., Kehle, T. J., Jenson, W. R., & Clark, E. (1990). Comparison of cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and self-modeling interventions for depression among middle-school students.School Psychology Review, 19, 196–211.
Kaufmann, P. G., Jacob, R. G., Ewart, C. K., Chesney, M. A., Kuenz, L. R., Doub, N., Mercer, W., & HIPP Investigators (1988). Hypertension intervention pooling project.Health Psychology, 7 (Suppl.), 209–224.
Kazdin, A. E., & Wilcoxon, L. (1976). Systematic desensitization and nonspecific treatment effects: A methodological evaluation.Psychological Bulletin, 83, 729–758.
Keller, S., & Seraganian, P. (1984). Physical fitness level and autonomic reactivity to psychosocial stress.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 28, 279–287.
Kelson, H. G., & Bryson-Brockmann, W. A. (1985). Peripheral temperature control using biofeedback and autogenic training: a comparison study.Clinical Biofeedback and Health, 8, 37–44.
Kluger, M. A., Jamner, L. D., & Tursky, B. (1985). Comparison of the effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation training on hand warming.Psychophysiology, 22, 162–166.
Knapp, T. W. (1982). Treating migraine by training in temporal artery vasoconstriction and/or cognitive behavioral coping: A one-year follow-up.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 26, 551–557.
Kotses, H., & Glaus, K. D. (1981). Applications of biofeedback to the treatment of asthma: A critical review.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 573–593.
Kotses, H., Harver, A., Segreto, J., Glaus, K. D., Creer, T. L., & Young, G. A. (1991). Long-term effects of biofeedback-induced facial relaxation on measures of asthma severity in children.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 16, 1–22.
Kotses, H., & Miller, D. J. (1987). The effects of changes in facial muscle tension on respiratory resistance.Biological Psychology, 25, 211–219.
Kravitz, E. A. (1977).EMG biofeedback and differential relaxation training to promote pain relief in chronic low back pain patients. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Wayne State University,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,39B, 1485–1486. University Microfilms order No. 7816047.
Kremsdorf, R. B., Kochanowicz, N. A., & Costell, S. (1981). Cognitive skills training versus EMG biofeedback in the treatment of tension headaches.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 93–102.
Kroner, B., Frieg, H., & Niewendiek, U. (1982). Einsatz verschiedener Programme des autogenen Trainings bei Prüfungsangst. [Application of different procedures of autogenic training for test anxiety.]Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 30, 254–266.
Lacks, P. (1987).Behavioral Treatment for Persistent Insomnia. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Lacks, P., & Morin, C. M. (1992). Recent advances in the assessment and treatment of insomnia.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 586–594.
Lacroix, J. M., Clarke, M. A., Bock, J. C., Doxey, N., Wood, A., & Lavis, S. (1983). Biofeedback and relaxation in the treatment of migraine headaches: Comparative effectiveness and physiological correlates.Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 46, 525–532.
Langeluddecke, P. M. (1985). Psychological aspects of irritable bowel syndrome.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 19, 218–226.
Lasser, N., Batey, D. M., Hymowitz, N., Lasser, V., Kanders, B. S., & Lehrer, P. M. (1987). The hypertension intervention trial. In T. Strasser & D. Ganten (Eds.).Mild hypertension: From drug trials to practice. New York: Raven Press.
Lazarus, R. S. (1977). A cognitive analysis of biofeedback control. In G. E. Schwartz & J. Beatty (Eds.),Biofeedback: Theory and research. New York: Academic Press.
LeBoeuf, A., & Lodge, J. (1980). A comparison of frontalis EMG feedback training and progressive relaxation in the treatment of chronic anxiety.British Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 279–284.
Lehrer, P. M., Atthowe, J. M., & Weber, E. S. P. (1980). Effects of progressive relaxation and autogenic training on anxiety and physiological measures, with some data on hypnotizability. In McGuigan, F. J., Sime, W., & Wallace, J. M. (Eds.),Stress and tension control. New York: Plenum.
Lehrer, P. M., Hochron, S. M., Mayne, T., Isenberg, S., Carlson, V., Lasoski, A. M., Gilchrist, J., & Rausch, L. (1994). Relaxation and music therapies for asthma among patients prestabilized on asthma medication.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17, 1–24.
Lehrer, P. M., Hochron, S. M., McCann, B. S., Swartzman, L., & Reba, P. (1986). Relaxation decreases large-airway but not small-airway asthma.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 13–25.
Lehrer, P. M., Isenberg, S., & Hochron, S. (1993). Asthma and emotion: A review.Journal of Asthma, 30, 5–21.
Lehrer, P. M., Schoicket, S., Carrington, P., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1980). Psychophysiological and cognitive responses to stressful stimuli in subjects practicing progressive relaxation and clinically standardized meditation.Behavior Research and Therapy, 18, 293–303.
Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1993a). The clinical context of stress management therapy. In Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. L. (Eds.).Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. L. (Eds.) (1993b).Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Lehrer, P. M., Woolfolk, R. L., & Goldman, N. (1986). Progressive relaxation then and now: Does change always mean progress? In Davidson, R., Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D.Consciousness and self-regulation, Vol. 4. New York: Plenum.
Lehrer, P. M., Woolfolk, R. L., Rooney, A., McCann, B. S., & Carrington, P. C. (1983). Progressive relaxation and meditation: A study of psychophysiological and therapeutic differences between two techniques.Behavior Research and Therapy, 21, 651–662.
Lewis, R. J., Wasserman, E., Denney, N. W., & Gerrard, M. (1983). The etiology and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A review.Clinical Psychology Review, 3 371–389.
Lichstein, K. L., & Fischer, S. M. (1985). Insomnia. In M. Hersen and A. S. Bellack (Eds.),Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with adults. New York: Plenum Press.
Linden, W. (1993). The autogenic training method of J. H. Schultz. In P. M. Lehrer, & R. L. Woolfolk (Eds.),Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Linden, W., & Chambers, B. A. (1994). Clinical effectiveness of non-drug treatment of hypertension: A meta-analysis.Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 35–45.
Lippincott, J. A. (1991).The effects of stress management training on somatic and cognitive anxiety in international and American university students somatic anxiety). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Lehigh University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 2759B.
Long, B. C., & Haney, C. J. (1988). Long-term followup of stressed working women: A comparison of aerobic exercise and progressive relaxation.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 461–470.
Longo, D. J. (1984).A psychophysiological comparison of three relaxation techniques and some implications in treating cardiovascular syndromes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, Philadelphia, May 23–26.
Luborsky, L., Aucona, L., Masoni, A., Scolari, G., & Longoni, A. (1980). Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments for essential hypertension: A pilot study.International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 10, 33–40.
Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Brady, J. P., Kron, R. E., Weiss, T., Cohen, M., & Levy, L. (1982). Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments for essential hypertension—A needed comparison.Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 203–213.
Lustman, P. J., & Sowa, C. J. (1983). Comparative efficacy of biofeedback and stress inoculation for stress reduction.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 191–197.
Lynch, P. M., & Zamble, E. (1987). Stress management training for irritable bowel syndrome: A preliminary investigation.Clinical Biofeedback and Health, 10, 123–134.
Margraf, J., Barlow, D. H., Clark, D. M., & Telch, M. J. (1993). Psychological treatment of panic: Work in progress on outcome, active ingredients, and follow-up.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 1–8.
Margraf, J., & Schneider, S. (1991). Outcome and active ingredients of cognitive-behavioral treatments for panic disorder. Paper presented at the 25thAnnual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. New York, November.
Marks, I. M. (1981).Cure and care of neuroses: Theory and practice of behavioral psychotherapy. New York: Wiley.
Marks, I. M. (1987).Fears, phobias, and rituals: Panic, anxiety, and their disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.
Martin, P. R., Marie, G. V., & Nathan, P. R. (1992). Psychophysiological mechanisms of chronic headaches: Investigation using pain induction and pain reduction procedures.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 137–148.
Martinsen, E. W. (1987). The role of aerobic exercise in the treatment of depression.Stress Medicine, 3, 93–100.
McCoy, G. C., Blanchard, E. B., Wittrock, D. A., Morrison, S., Pagburn, L., Siracusa, K., & Pallmeyer, T. (1988). Biochemical changes associated with thermal biofeedback treatment of hypertension.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 13, 139–150.
Michelson, L., Marchione, K., Marchione, N., Testa, S., & Mavissakalian, M. (1988). Cognitive correlates and outcome of cognitive, behavioral and physiological treatments of agoraphobia.Psychological Reports, 63, 999–1004.
Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., & Marchione, K. (1985). Cognitive and behavioral treatments of agoraphobia: Clinical, behavioral, and psychophysiological outcomes.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 913–925.
Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., & Marchione, K. (1988). Cognitive, behavioral and psychophysiological treatments of agoraphobia; A comparative outcome investigation.Behavior Therapy, 19, 97–120.
Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., Marchione, K., Dancu, C., & Greenwald, M. (1986). The role of self-directed in vivo exposure in cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological treatments of agoraphobia.Behavior Therapy, 17, 91–108.
Michelson, L., Marchione, K., & Greenwald, M. (1989, November).Cognitive-behavioral treatments of agoraphobia. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.
Mitchell, K. R., & Mitchell, D. M. (1971). Migraine: An exploratory treatment application of programmed behavior therapy techniques.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 15, 137–157.
Mitchell, K. R., & White, R. G. (1977). Self-management of severe predormital insomnia.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 8, 57–63.
Monti, P., Abrams, D., & Binkoff, J. (1990). Communication skills training, communication skills training with family and cognitive behavioral mood management training for alcoholics.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51, 263–270.
Morin, C. M., & Kwentus, J. A. (1988). Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for insomniaAnnals of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 91–100.
Morley, S. (1977). Migraine: A generalized vasomotor dysfunction? A critical review of the evidence.Headache, 17, 71–74.
Muldoon, M. F., Manuck, S. B., Shapiro, A. P., & Waldstein, S. R. (1991). Neurobehavioral effects of antihypertensive medications.Journal of Hypertension, 9, 549–559.
Muncy, S. M. (1990).Panic: A comparison of four treatment methods (imipramine therapy, rational emotive therapy, biofeedback). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, The Union Institute.Dissertations Abstracts International, 51, 6115B.
Murphy, A. I., Lehrer, P. M., & Jurish, S. (1990). Cognitive coping skills training and relaxation training as treatments for tension headaches.Behavior Therapy, 21, 89–98.
Mussell, M. J., & Hartley, J. P. (1988). Trachea-noise biofeedback in asthma: A comparison of the effect of trachea-noise biofeedback, a bronchodilator, and no treatment on the rate of recovery from exercise- and eucapnic hyperventilation-induced asthma.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 13, 219–234.
Neff, D F., & Blanchard, E. B. (1987). A multi-component treatment for irritable bowel syndrome.Behavior Therapy, 18, 70–83.
Niaura, R., & Goldstein, M. G. (1992). Psychological factors affecting physical condition: Cardiovascular disease literature review: II. Coronary artery disease and sudden death and hypertension.Psychosomatics, 33, 146–155.
Nicassio, P., & Bootzin, R. A. (1974). Comparison of progressive relaxation and autogenic training as treatment for insomnia.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 235–260.
Nicassio, P. M., Mendlowitz, D. R., Fussell, J. J., & Petas, L. (1985). The phenomenology of the pre-sleep state: The development of the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 263–271.
Nigel, A. J., & Jackson, B. (1979). Electromyograph biofeedback as an adjunct to standard psychiatric treatment.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 40, 433–436.
Norton, G. R., & Johnson, W. E. (1983). A comparison of two relaxation procedures for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 14, 209–214.
Öst, L. G. (1991).Cognitive therapy vs. applied relaxation in the treatment of panic disorder. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for Behavior Therapy, Oslo, September.
Page, R. D., & Schaub, L. H. (1978). EMG biofeedback applicability for differing personality types.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 1014–1020.
Parker, J., & Gilbert, G. (1978). Anxiety management in alcoholics: A study of generalized effects of relaxation techniques.Addictive Behaviors, 3, 123–127.
Parker, J. C., Gilbert, G. S., & Thoreson, R. W. (1978). Reduction of autonomic arousal in alcoholics: A comparison of relaxation and meditation techniques.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 879–886.
Patel, C., Marmot, M. G., & Terry, D. J. (1981). Controlled trial of biofeedback-aided behavioral methods in reducing mild hypertension.British Medical Journal, 282, 2005–2008.
Patel, C., Marmot, M. G., Terry, D. J., Carruthers, M., Hunt B., & Patel, M. (1985). Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary risk: Four year follow-up.British Medical Journal, 290, 1103–1106.
Patel, C. (1993). Yoga-based therapy. In Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. L. (Eds.).Principles and practice of stress management. Second edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Pelletier, K. R. (1992). Mind-body health: Research, clinical, and policy applications.American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 345–358.
Peper, E., Smith, K., & Waddell, D. (1987). Voluntary wheezing versus diaphragmatic breathing with inhalation (Voldyne) biofeedback: A clinical intervention in the treatment of asthma.Clinical Biofeedback and Health: An International Journal, 10, 83–88.
Pharr, O. M., & Coursey, R. D. (1989). The use and utility of EMG biofeedback with chronic schizophrenic patients.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 14, 229–245.
Pinkerton, S., Hughes, H., & Wenrich, W. W. (1982).Behavioral medicine: Clinical applications. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Pikoff, H. (1983). Is the muscular model of headache still viable? A review of conflicting data.Headache, 24, 186–198.
Plotkin, W. B. (1979). The alpha experience revisited: Biofeedback in the transformation of psychological state.Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1132–1148.
Pollard, G., & Ashton, R. (1982). Heart rate decrease: A comparison of feedback modalities and biofeedback with other procedures.Biological Psychology, 14, 245–257.
Quillen, M. A., & Denney, D. R. (1982). Self-control of dysmenorrheic symptoms through pain management training.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 123–130.
Rapoport, A. M. (1992). The diagnosis of migraine and tension-type headache, then and now.Neurology.42, Suppl. 2, 11–15.
Reading, C. (1983). Psychophysiological reactivity in migraine following biofeedback.Headache, 24, 70–74.
Rawson, J. R., Bhatnagar, N. S., & Schneider, H. G. (1985). Initial relaxation response: Personality and treatment factors.Psychological Reports, 57, 827–830.
Reed, M., & Saslow, C. (1980). The effects of relaxation instructions and EMG biofeedback on test anxiety, general anxiety, and locus of control.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 683–690.
Reinking, R. H., & Kohl, M. L. (1975). Effects of various forms of relaxation training on physiological and self-report measures of relaxation.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 595–600.
Richter-Heinrich, E., Homuth, V., Heinrich, B., Schmidt, K. H., Wiedemann, R., & Gohkle, H. R. (1981). Long-term application of behavioral treatments in essential hypertensives.Physiology and Behaviour, 26, 915–920.
Rose, G. D., & Carlson, J. G. (1987). The behavioral treatment of Raynaud's disease: A review.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 12, 257–272.
Rosenberg, S. D. (1979).Relaxation training and a differential assessment of alcoholism. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, California School for Professional Psychology, San Diego.Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980,40B, 3963–3964.
Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results.Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641.
Rosenthal, R. (1984).Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenthal, R. L. (1978).Differential treatment of spasmodic and congestive dysmenorrhea. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,39B, 1498. University Microfilms order No. 7816421.
Roszell, D. K., & Chaney, E. F. (1982). Autogenic training in a drug abuse program.International Journal of the Addictions, 17, 1337–1349.
Roth, D. L. (1986).An experimental comparison of the cardiovascular and self-reported health effects of aerobic exercise and progressive relaxation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas.Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1522B. University Microfilms No. ADG87-11265.
Sappington, J. T., Fiorito, E. M., & Brehony, K. A. (1979). Biofeedback as therapy in Raynaud's disease.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 4, 155–169.
Sargent, J., Solbach, P., Coyne, L., Spohn, H., & Sergerson, J. (1986).Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 291–323.
Sargunaraj, D., Lehrer, P. M., & Hochron, S. M. (1992).Effect of respiratory resistance on respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, San Diego.
Scandrett, S. L., Bean, J. L., Breeden, S., & Powell, S. (1986). A comparative study of biofeedback and progressive relaxation in anxious patients.Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 8, 255–271.
Schmitz, P. G. (1992). Personality, stress-reactions and disease.Personality & Individual Differences, 13, 683–691.
Schneider, H. G., Rawson, J. C., & Bhatnagar, N. S. (1987). Initial relaxation response: Contrasts between clinical patients and normal volunteers.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 147–153.
Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., & Goleman, D. T. (1978). Patterning of cognitive and somatic processes in the self-regulation of anxiety: Effects of meditation versus exercise.Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321–328.
Sedlacek, K., Cohen, J., & Boxhill, C. (1979).Comparison between biofeedback and relaxation response in the treatment of hypertension. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, San Diego.
Shapiro, D. H. (1982). Overview: Clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other self-control strategies.American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 267–274.
Shapiro, S., & Lehrer, P. M. (1980). Psychophysiological effects of autogenic training and progressive relaxation.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5, 249–255.
Sheridan, C. L., Vaughan, K. S., Wallerstedt, M. J., & Ward, L. B. (1977).Electromyographic biofeedback and progressive relaxation compared: Interactions with gender and type of dependent measure. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, Orlando, FL, March, 1977.
Shoemaker, J. (1976).Treatments for anxiety neurosis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977,37B, 5377. University Microfilms order No. 77-6813.
Sigmon, S. T, & Nelson, R. O. (1988). The effectiveness of activity scheduling and relaxation training in the treatment of spasmodic dysmenorrhea.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11, 483–495.
Silberstein, S. D. (1992). Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of headache.Neurology, 42, Suppl 2, 6–10.
Sime, W. E., & DeGood, D. E. (1977). Effect of EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation training on awareness of frontalis muscle tension.Psychophysiology, 14, 522–530.
Sorbi, M., & Tellegen, B. (1986). Differential effects of training in relaxation and stress-coping in patients with migraine.Headache, 26, 473–481.
Sorbi, M., Tellegen, B., & du Long, A. (1989). Long-term effects of training in relaxation and stress-coping in patients with migraine: A 3-year follow-up.Headache, 29, 111–121.
Staples, R., Coursey, R., & Smith, B. (1975).A comparison of EMG biofeedback, autogenic, and progressive training as relaxation techniques. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Biofeedback Research Society, Monterey, CA, February.
Steinmark, S., & Borkovec, T. D. (1974). Active and placebo treatment effects on moderate insomnia under counterdemand and positive demand instructions.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 157–163.
Steptoe, A., & Kearsley, N. (1990). Cognitive and somatic anxiety.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 75–81.
Steptoe, A., Phillips, J., & Harling, J. (1981). Biofeedback instructions in the modification of total respiratory resistance: An experimental study of asthmatic and nonasthmatic volunteers.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 25, 541–551.
Suinn, R. M. (1990).Anxiety management training: a behavior therapy. New York: Plenum.
Sun, Z., Zhao, J., Xia, M., Ren, R., Yan, H., Yang, L., Gao, S., & Wang, S. (1986). [Comparative study on the efficiency of EMG and thermal biofeedback training and the combination of biofeedback and autogenic training in reducing test anxiety.]Acta Psychologica Sinica, 18, 196–202.
Surwit, R. S. (1982). Biofeedback and the behavioral treatment of Raynaud's disease. In White, L., & Tursky, B. (Eds.)Clinical biofeedback: Efficacy and mechanisms. New York: Guilford.
Surwit, R. S., Pilon, R. N., & Fenton, C. H. (1978). Behavioral treatment of Raynaud's disease.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 323–335.
Svedlund, J. (1983). Psychotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled outcome study.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 306, 67, 4–86.
Tarler-Benlolo, L. (1978). The role of relaxation in biofeedback training: A critical review of the literature.Psychological Bulletin, 85, 727–755.
Thompson J. K., & Figueroa, J. L. (1983). Critial issues in the assessment of headache.Progress in Behavior Modification, 15, 81–111.
Tibbetts, V., & Peper, E. (1989). Follow up study on EMG/incentive inspirometer training to reduce asthmatic symptoms.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 14, 172.
Tobin, D. L. (1986).A comparison of minimal therapist contact procedures for the treatment of tension headache: relaxation training versus cognitive-behavior therapy. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio University.Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 3974B.
Tobin, D. L., Holroyd, K. A., Baker, A., Reynolds, R. V. C., & Holm, H. (1988). Development and clinical trial of a minimal contact, cognitive-behavioral treatment of tension headache.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 325–339.
Turk, D. C., Meichenbaum, D., & Genest, M. (1983).Pain and behavioral medicine: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. New York: Guilford Press.
Turner, P. E. (1978).A psychophysiological assessment of selected relaxation strategies. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Mississippi,Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978,39B, 3010. University of Microfilms order No. 7824063.
Turner, R. M. (1982). Comparison of group progressive relaxation training and cognitive behavioral group therapy for chronic low back pain.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 757–765.
Turner, R. M., & Ascher, L. M. (1979). Controlled comparison of progressive relaxation, stimulus control, and paradoxical intention therapies for insomnia.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 500–508.
Van Hessel, J. H., Bloom, L. J., & Gonzalez, A. M. (1982). Anxiety management with schizophrenic outpatients.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 280–285.
Wadden, T. A., & Luborsky, L. (1984). The behavioral treatment of essential hypertension: An update and comparison with pharmacological treatment.Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 403–429.
Warrenburg, S., Pagano, R. R., Woods, M., & Hlastala, M. A. (1980). Comparison of somatic relaxation and EEG activity in classical progressive relaxation and Transcendental meditation.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 3, 73–93.
West, M. A. (1980). Meditation and the EEG.Psychological Medicine, 10, 369–375.
Whitehead, W. E., & Basmajian, L. S. (1982). Behavioral medicine approaches to gastrointestinal disorders.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 6, 972–983.
Whorwell, P. J., Prior, A., & Faragher, E. B. (1984). Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in the treatment of severe refractory irritable bowel syndrome.Lancet, 2, 1232–1234.
Woolfolk, R. L. (1975). Psychophysiological correlates of meditation.Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1326–1333.
Woolfolk, R. L., Carr-Kaffashan, L., McNulty, T. G., & Lehrer, P. M. (1976). Meditation training as a treatment for insomnia.Behavior Therapy, 7, 359–365.
Woolfolk, R. L., Lehrer, P. M., McCann, B. S., & Rooney, A. J. (1982). Effects of progressive relaxation and meditation on cognitive and somatic manifestations of daily stress.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 461–468.
Yang, L., Xin, Y., Chen, H., & Hu, Z. (1987). [The effects of EMG biofeedback and autogenic training in relieving the anxiety of pregnant women.]Acta Psychologica Sinica, 19, 420–426.
Zaichkowsky, L. K., & Kamen, R. (1978). Biofeedback and meditation: Effects on muscle tension and locus of control.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46, 955–958.
Zeier, H. (1985). Entspannung durch biofeedbackunterstutze Atem Meditation und autogenes Training. [Relaxation through feedback-supported respiratory meditation and autogenic training.]Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 32, 682–695.
Zitman, F. G., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., & Linssen, A. C. (1992). Hypnosis and autogenic training in the treatment of tension headaches: A two-phase constructive design study with follow-up.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 219–28.
This work was supported by grants Nos. HL-34336 and HL-44097 from the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Material in this article has been condensed and updated from three chapters in Lehrer, P. M., and Woolfolk, R. L. (1993).Principles and practice of stress management, Vol. 2, New York: Guilford Press.
About this article
Cite this article
Lehrer, P.M., Carr, R., Sargunaraj, D. et al. Stress management techniques: Are they all equivalent, or do they have specific effects?. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 19, 353–401 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01776735
Descriptor Key words
- autogenic training
- stress management
- cognitive therapy