Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 125–138 | Cite as

Late Neogene evolution of paleoclimate and paleoceanic circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres - A comparison

  • Rüdiger Stein
Article

Abstract

Oxygen isotopes and clay minerals, grain size, and accumulation rates of terrigenous (i. e., mainly eolian) sediments from northeast Atlantic DSDP-Sites 141, 366, 397 and 544B and from southwest Pacific DSDP-Sites 588, 590 and 591 were used to assess parallelisms and differences in the evolution of paleoclimate and paleoceanic circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres during the last 7 Ma.

Concomitant with the Messinian cooling event, both northwest African and Australian deserts expanded, as defined by increased supply of illite and increased accumulation rates of terrigenous matter. After an early Pliocene phase of more humid climatic conditions in Australia, as well as in northwest Africa, the accumulation rates of terrigenous sediments distinctly increased in the Southwest Pacific at about 4 Ma, whereas the northeast Atlantic Sites were still characterized by low terrigenous sediment supply until 3.2 Ma. Coincident with the build-up of major Arctic ice sheets during the last 3 Ma, increased aridity and enhanced atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were inferred from distinct changes in the terrigenous sediment supply and a coarsening of both bulk and terrigenous sediment fractions.

Zusammenfassung

Sauerstoffisotope sowie Tonminerale, Korngrößen und Akkumulationsraten terrigener (d. h. in erster Linie äolomariner) Sedimente aus dem Nordost-Atlantik (DSDP-Sites 141, 366, 397 und 544B) und aus dem Südwest-Pazifik (DSDP-Sites 588, 590 und 591) wurden untersucht, um Aussagen über die Entwicklung von Klima und ozeanischer Zirkulation auf der Nord- und Südhemisphäre während der letzten 7 Mill. J.v.h. zu machen. Die Ergebnisse lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen.
  1. 1.

    Die Wüstengebiete in Nordwest-Afrika und Australien dehnten sich während der Kälteperiode im obersten Miozän aus, wie aus der erhöhten Zufuhr von Terrigenmaterial und dem erhöhten Illit-Anteil in den Sedimenten abzulesen ist.

     
  2. 2.

    Nach einer mehr humiden Klimaphase in Nordwest-Afrika und Australien während des unteren Pliozäns weisen die extrem hohen Akkumulationsraten von Terrigenmaterial im Südwest-Pazifik vor etwa 4. Mill. J.v.h. auf zunehmend aridere Klimaverhältnisse in Australien hin. Das Klima in Nordwest-Afrika war zu dieser Zeit noch humid, was aus den sehr niedrigen Akkumulationsraten von Terrigenmaterial angenommen wird.

     
  3. 3.

    Vor etwa 3.2 Mill. J.v.h., d. h. parallel zur Ausdehnung größerer Eismassen in hohen nördlichen Breiten, verstärkte sich die meridionale atmosphärische Zirkulation auf der Nordhemisphäre, und das Klima in Nordwest-Afrika wurde zunehmend arid, was sich in einer deutlichen Vergröberung und einer deutlich erhöhten Zufuhrrate von Windstaub im Nordost-Atlantik widerspiegelt. Während der letzten 3 Mill. J.v.h. dominierte ein arides Klima in den Subtropen der Nord- und Südhemisphäre.

     
  4. 4.

    Die ozeanische Zirkulation der intermediären Wassermassen im Südwest-Pazifik verstärkte sich deutlich vor etwa 3 Mill. J.v.h., wie aus den Änderungen in Korngrößen und Zufuhrraten des Terrigen- und des Gesamtsediments abzulesen ist. Die Tiefenwasserzirkulation im Nordost-Atlantik erreichte Maximalwerte vor etwa 2.5 und 1 Mill. J.v.h., was zu deutlichen Schichtlücken in den Sites 366, 397 und 544B führte.

     

Résumé

Une étude, portant sur les isotopes de l'oxygène, les minéraux argileux, la granulométrie et le taux d'accumulation des sédiments (surtout éoliens) a été menée dans le NE de l'Atlantique (sites DSDP 141, 366, 397 et 544B) et dans le SW du Pacifique (sites DSDP 588, 590 et 591), de manière à comparer l'évolution des climats et des circulations océaniques dans les deux hémispheres au cours des derniers 7 ma. Les résultats sont les suivants.
  1. 1.

    La période froide du Miocène supérieur a été accompagnée d'une extension des déserts du NW africain et d'Australie; ceci ressort de l'apport accru de matériaux terrigènes et de la teneur plus élevée en illite des sédiments.

     
  2. 2.

    Le Pliocène inférieur correspond à une phase climatique plus humide dans le NW africain et l'Australie. Après cette phase, il y a 4 ma, le SW du Pacifique a présenté un taux d'accumulation terrigène extrêment élevé, ce qui indique le développement d'un climat aride en Australie. Au même moment, le climat du NW africain était encore humide, comme en témoigne le faible taux de sédimentation terrigène dans l'Atlantique.

     
  3. 3.

    Il y a environ 3,2 ma, lors de 1' extension de grandes masses de glaces aux hautes latitudes N, la circulation atmosphérique méridionale de l'hémisphère N s'est renforcée et le climat s'est désertifié dans le NW africain. Ceci se reflète dans un accroissement en quantité et en granularité des apports éoliens dans le NE de l'Atlantique. Au cours des trois dernièrs ma, le climat aride a été prédominant dans les régions subtropicales des deux hémisphères.

     
  4. 4.

    La circulation océanique des masses d'eau intermédiaires s'est renforcée nettement dans le SW du Pacifique il y a environ 3 ma. En témoignent les changements dans la granularité et le taux de dépôt des sédiments tant terrigènes que globaux. La circulation profonde dans le NE de l'Atlantique a atteint un maximum à 2,5 ma et à 1 ma, entraînant des lacunes nettes aux sites 366, 397 et 544B.

     

Краткое содержание

Чтобы проследить кли матические условия и циркуляцию океанических вод за п ериод последних 7 миллионов лет в север ном и южном полушария х, провели определение соотношения из отопо в кислорода, глинистых минералов, гранулометрические определения и скорос ть накопления терриг енных, т. е. в первую очередь, э оловых седиментов на северовостоке Атлантики (DSDP-Sites 141, 366, 397 и 544 В), и югозападной Пациф ики (DSDP-Sites 588, 590 и 591). Результаты можно кр атко суммировать сле дующим образом:
  1. 1)

    Области пустынь севе розападной Африки и Австралии расширяли сь во время периода по холодания, происходившее в верх нем миоцене, что следу ет из наличия повышенно го приносатерригенн ого материала и повышенн ого содержания глини стого минерала иллита в сед иментах.

     
  2. 2)

    После некого более гу мидного климатическ ого периода, во время нижн его плиоцена в северо западной Африке и Австралии, в А встралии наступают аридные условия, что в идно по чрезвычайно высокой скорости нак опления терригенног о материала в югозападной Пацифи ке примерно за послед ние 4 миллиона лет. Климат с еверозападной Африк и в этот период был еще г умидным, что следует и з медленной скорости н акопления терригенн ого материала в соответствующих об ластях.

     
  3. 3)

    Начиная примерно с 3,2 м иллионов лет тому наз ад, т. е. параллельно с расш ирением больших масс льда в высоких северн ых широтах, на северны м полушарии усиливается и мериди альная циркуляция атмосферы и климат се верозапада Африки ст ановится более аридным, что про является в увеличени и приноса пыли ветрами и в скорости ее накопл ения в северовосточной Атл антике. За последние 3 м иллиона лет в субтропиках сев ерного и южного полуш ария установился аридный климат.

     
  4. 4)

    Изменение грануломе трического состава и скорости приноса терригенных и иных седиментов гов орит в пользу усиления цир куляции океанически х вод в южной Пацифике п римерно 3 миллионов ле т тому назад. Максимумы циркуляции водных ма сс на глубине в северовост очной Атлантике уста новлены в периоды примерно 2,5 ми ллионов лет тому наза д и 1 миллион лет тому наза д, что явно доказывают пробелы в 366, 397 и 544 В.

     

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Backman, J. &Shackleton, N. J. (1983): Quantitative biochronology of Pliocene and Early Pleistocene calcareous nannofossils from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean.-Mar. Micropaleont.,8, 141–170.Google Scholar
  2. Beckmann, J. P. (1972): The foraminifera and some associated microfossils of Sites 135 to 144. - In:Hayes, D. E.,Pimm, A. C. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,14, 389–420.Google Scholar
  3. Berggren, W. A., Burckle, L. H., Cita, M. B., Cooke, H. B. S., Funnel, B. M., Gartner, S., Hays, J. D., Kennett, J. P., Opdyke, N. D., Pastouret, L., Shackleton, N. J. &Takayanag, Y. (1980): Towards a Quaternary Time Scale. - Quat. Res., 13, 277–302.Google Scholar
  4. Biscaye, P. E. (1965): Mineralogy and sedimentation of the recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans. - GSA Bull.,76, 803–832.Google Scholar
  5. Blanc, P. (1981): Paléoclimatologic isotopique et histoire de l'eau profonde Atlantique depuis 15 millions d'anné es. - University of Paris Xi-Orsay, 190 p. (Ph. D.).Google Scholar
  6. Bleil, U., Spiess, V. &Weinreich, N. (1984): »Meteor« Core 13519 from the Sierra Leone Rise, a hiatus in early Quaternary sediments documented in the magnetostratigraphic record. »Meteor« Forsch. Ergebn., C,38, 1–7.Google Scholar
  7. Cepek, P.,Johnson, D.,Krasheninnikov, V. A. &Pflaumann, U. (1978): Synthesis of the Leg 41 biostratigraphy and paleontology, Deep Sea Drilling Project. -In:Lancelot, Y.,Seibold, E. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,41, 1181–1198.Google Scholar
  8. - &Wind F. H. (1979): Neogene and Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton from DSDP Site 397 (Northwest African margin). - In:von Rad, U.,Ryan, W. B. F. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,47A, 289–315.Google Scholar
  9. Chamley, H. (1979): North Atlantic Clay Sedimentation and Paleoenvironment since the Late Jurassic. -Talwani, M.,Hay, W.,Ryan, W. B. F. (Eds.), Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Continental Margins and Paleoenvironment. Maurice Ewing Series,3, 342–361.Google Scholar
  10. Ciesielsky, P. F. &Wise, S. W., jr. (1977): Geologic history of the Maurice Ewing Bank of the Falkland Plateau (Southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean) based on piston and drill cores. - Mar. Geol., 25, 175–207.Google Scholar
  11. Diester-Haass, L. &Chamley, H. (1978): Neogene paleoenvironment off Northwest Africa based on sediments from DSDP Leg 14. - Journ. Sed. Petr.48, 879–896.Google Scholar
  12. Glasby, G. P. (1971): The influence of Aeolian Transport of Dust Particles on Marine Sedimentation in the Southwest Pacific.- Journ. Roy. Soc. New Zealand,1, 285–300.Google Scholar
  13. Hamilton, N. (1979): A paleomagnetic study of sediments from Site 397, Northwest African continental margin. - In: v.Rad, U.,Ryan, W. B. F. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,47A, 463–478.Google Scholar
  14. Haq, B. U., Worsley, T. R., Burckle, L. H., Douglas, R. G., Keigwin, jr.,L. D., Opdyke, N. D., Savin, S. M., Sommer II, M. A., Vincent. F. &Woodruff, F. (1980): Late Miocene marine carbon-isotope shift and synchroneity of some phytoplanktonic biostratigraphic events. - Geol.,8, 427–432.Google Scholar
  15. Healy, T. R. (1970): Dust from Australia. - Earth Science Journ.,4, 106–116.Google Scholar
  16. Koopmann, B. (1981): Sedimentation von Saharastaub im subtropischen Nordatlantik während der letzten 25.000 Jahre.- ‘Meteor’ Forsch. Ergebn., C,35, 23–59.Google Scholar
  17. Knox, G. A. (1970): Biological Oceanography of the South Pacific. - In:Wooster, W. S. (Ed.), Scientific Exploration of the South Pacific, National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., 155–182.Google Scholar
  18. Krasheninnikov, V. A. &Pflaumann, U. (1978): Zonal stratigraphy and Neogene deposits of the eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean by means of planktonic foraminifers, Leg 41, Deep Sea Drilling Project. - In:Lancelot, Y.,Seibold, E. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP, 41, 613–658.Google Scholar
  19. Leinen, M. &Heath, G. P. (1981): Sedimentary indicators of atmospheric activity in the Northern Hemisphere during the Cenozoic. - Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.,36, 1–21.Google Scholar
  20. Lever, A. &McCave, I. N. (1983): Eolian components in Cretaceous and Tertiary North Atlantic sediments.- Journ. Sed. Petr.,53, 811–832.Google Scholar
  21. Locker, S. &Martini, E. (in press): Phytoliths of DSDP Site 591 (Southwest Pacific). In:Kennett, J. P.,von der Borch, C. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,90, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. Lohman, W. (in press): Neogene nannofossil stratigraphy, Leg 90 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. In:Kennet, J. P., von derBorch, C. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,90, 1985.Google Scholar
  23. Mazzei, R.,Raffi, I.,Rio, D.,Hamilton, N. &Cita, M. B. (1979): Calibration of the Late Neogene calcareous plankton datum planes with the paleomagnetic record of Site 397 and correlations with Moroccan and Mediterranean sections. - In: vonRad, U.,Ryan, W. B. F. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,47A, 375–389.Google Scholar
  24. McCave, J. N. &Jarvis, J. (1973): Use of the Model T Coulter Counter in size analysis of the fine to coarse sand. - Sedimentology,20, 305–315.Google Scholar
  25. Mercer, J. H. &Sutter, J. F. (1982): Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene glaciation in southern Argentina: implications for global ice-sheet history. - Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.,38, 185–206.Google Scholar
  26. Parkin, D. W. (1974): Trade winds during the glacial cycles. - Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Series a,337, 73–100.Google Scholar
  27. Pflaumann, U. &Krasheninnikov, V. A. (1978): Quaternary stratigraphy and planktonic foraminifers of the eastern Atlantic, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 41. - In:Lancelot, Y.,Seibold, E. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP, 41, 883–911.Google Scholar
  28. Ramage, C. S. (1970): Meteorology of the South Pacific Tropical and Middle Latitudes. - In:Wooster, W. S. (Ed.), Scientific Exploration of the South Pacific, National Academy of Sciences, Washington D. C., 16–29.Google Scholar
  29. Rea, D. K. &Janecek, T. R. (1982): Late Cenozoic changes in atmospheric circulation deduced from North Pacific eolian sediments. - Mar. Geol.,49, 149–167.Google Scholar
  30. Robert, C. (1982): Modalité de la sedimentation argileuse on relation avec l'histoire géologique de l'Atlantique sud. - Unpubl. thesis., Marseille, 141 p.Google Scholar
  31. Robert, C.,Stein, R. &Acquaviva, M. (in press): Cenozoic evolution and significance of clay association in the New Zealand region of the South Pacific, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 90. In:Kennett, J. P., von derBorch, C. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,90, 1985.Google Scholar
  32. Roth, P. H. &Thierstein, H. (1972): Calcareous nannoplankton: Leg XIV of the Deep Sea Drilling Projekt. - In:Hayes, D. E.,Pimm, A. C. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP, 14, 421–486.Google Scholar
  33. Salvatorini, G. &Cita, M. B. (1979): Miocene foraminiferal stratigraphy, DSDP Site 397 (Cape Bojador, North Atlantic). -In:von Rad, U.,Ryan, W. B. F. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,47A, 317–373.Google Scholar
  34. Sarnthein, M., Erlenkeuser, H., vonGrafenstein, R. &Schröder, C. (1984): Stable isotope stratigraphy for the last 750,000 years: »Meteor« core 13519 from the eastern equatorial Atlantic. »Meteor« Forsch. Ergebn., C,38, 9–24.Google Scholar
  35. Sarnthein, M. &Koopmann, B. (1980): Late Quaternary deep-sea record on Northwest African dust supply and wind circulation. - Palaeoecology of Africa,12, 239–253.Google Scholar
  36. Sarnthein, M., Koopmann, B., Wolter, K. &Pflaumann, U. (1981): Glacial and interglacial wind regimes over the eastern subtropical Atlantic and Northwest Africa. - Nature,293, 193–196.Google Scholar
  37. —,Thiede, J., Pflaumann, U., Erlenkeuser, H., Futterer, D., Koopmann, B., Lange, H. &Seibold, E. (1982): Atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns off Northwest Africa during the past 25 million years. - In: v.Rad, U., Hinz, K., Sarnthein, M. &Seibold, E. (eds.), Geology of the Northern African Continental Margin, Springer Verlag Berlin, 545–604.Google Scholar
  38. Shackleton, N. J., Backman, J., Zimmerman, H., Kent, D. V., Hall, M. A., Roberts, D. G., Schnitker, D., Baldauf, J. G., Desprairies, A., Homrighausen, R., Huddlestun, P., Keene, J. B., Kaltenback, A. J., Krumsiek, K. A. O., Morton, A. C., Murray, J. W. &Westberg-Smith, J. (1984): Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. - Nature,307, 620–623.Google Scholar
  39. - &Cita, M. B. (1979): Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy of benthic forarmnifera at Site 397: detailed history of climatic change during the Late Neogene. In: vonRad, U.,Ryan, W. B. F. et al., Ink. Reps. DSDP,47A, 433–445.Google Scholar
  40. - &Kennett, J. P. (1975): Paleotemperature history of the Cenozoic and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation: oxygen and carbon isotope analyses in DSDP Sites 277, 279 and 281. - In:Kennett, J. P.,Houtz, R. E. et al., Init. Reps. DSDP,29, 743–755.Google Scholar
  41. — &Opdyke, N. D. (1977): Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic evidence for early northern hemisphere glaciation. - Nature,270, 216–219.Google Scholar
  42. Shipboard Scientific Party (in press): Site Chapters Leg 90. - In:Kennett, J. P., van derBorch, C. et al., Init. Reps. DSDP,90, 1985.Google Scholar
  43. Stein, R. (1984): Zur neogenen Klimaentwicklung in Nordwest-Afrika und Palaeo-Ozeanographie im Nordost-Atlantik: Ergebnisse von DSDP-Sites 141, 366, 397 und 544B. Ber. Rep. Geol. Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Kiel,4, 210 pp. (doctoral thesis).Google Scholar
  44. — (1985a): Late Neogene Changes of Paleoclimate and Paleoproductivity off Northwest Africa (DSDP-Site 397). Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,49, 48–59.Google Scholar
  45. - (1985 b): The post-Eocene sediment record of DSDP-site 366: Implications for African climate and plate tectonic drift. -In: J. P.Kennett(ed.), The Miocene ocean: Paleoceanography and biogeography, GSA Memoir 163, 305–315.Google Scholar
  46. — (1985 c): Rapid grain-size analyses of silt and clay fractions by SediGraph 5000D: Comparison with Coulter Counter and Atterberg methods. J. Sediment. Petrol.,55, 590–593.Google Scholar
  47. — &Sarnthein, M. (1984a): Late Neogene events of atmospheric and oceanic circulation offshore Northwest Africa: High-resolution record from deep-sea sediments. In:E. M. van Zinderen Bakker (Editor), Palaeoecology of Africa,16, Balkema, Rotterdam, 9–36.Google Scholar
  48. - &Sarnthein, M. (1984b): Late Neogene Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy and Terrigenous Flux Rates at Site 544B off Morocco. In: K.Hinz, E. L.Winterer et al., Init. Reps. DSDP,79, 385–394.Google Scholar
  49. - &Bleil, U. (in press): Deep-water circulation in the Northeast Atlantic and climatic changes during the Late Neogene (DSDP Site 141). - Mar. Geol., 1985.Google Scholar
  50. - &Robert, C. (in press): Siliciclastic sediments at Sites 588, 590 and 591: Neogene Evolution of the Southwest Pacific and Australian climate.- In:Kennett, J. P., von derBorch, C. et al., Init. Reps. DSDP,90, 1985.Google Scholar
  51. —,Sarnthein, M. &Sündermann, J. (in press): Late Neogene submarine erosion events along the northeast Atlantic continental margin. In:Summerhayes, C. P., Shackleton, N. J. (eds), Proceedings of »North Atlantic Paleoceanography« Meeting. The Geological Society, London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1985.Google Scholar
  52. Thiede, J. (1979): Wind regimes over the late Quaternary southwest Pacific Ocean. - Geology,7, 259–262.Google Scholar
  53. Thiede, J., Suess, E. &Mueller, P. (1982): Late Quaternary Fluxes of Major Sediment Components to the Sea Floor at the Northwest African Continental Slope. - In: vonRad, U., Hinz, K. et al. (eds.), Geology of the Northwest African Continental Margin, Springer Verlag Berlin, 605–631.Google Scholar
  54. Thunell, R. C. (1981): Late Miocene - Early Pliocene Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy and Paleoceanography of Low-Latitude Marine Sequences. - Mar. Micropaleont.,6, 71–90.Google Scholar
  55. vanAndel, T. H.,Heath, G. R. &Moore, T. C. (1975): Cenozoic history and paleoceanography of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean.- Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem.,143.Google Scholar
  56. Walker, P. H. &Costin, A. B. (1971): Atmospheric dust accession in south-eastern Australia. - Austr. Journ. Soil Res.,9, 1–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Stein
    • 1
  1. 1.Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut der Universität KielKielF.R.G.
  2. 2.Geologisch-Paläontologisches InstitutUniversität GießenGießenF.R.G.

Personalised recommendations