Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer

Summary

To examine the clinical efficacy and the mechanism of action of polysaccharide K (PSK), a proteinbound polysaccharide extracted from a Basidiomycetes fungus, a randomized double-blind trial was performed by administering PSK to 56 patients and a placebo to another group of 55 patients after surgical operations on their colorectal cancers. The rate of patients in remission (or disease-free) was significantly higher in the PSK group than in the placebo group; the difference between both groups was statistically significant atP <0.05 by the logrank test. The survival rate of patients was also significantly (P <0.05) higher in the PSK group than in the control group. The most significant laboratory finding was that polymorphonuclear leukocytes from PSK-treated patients showed remarkable enhancement in their activities, such as random and/or chemotactic locomotion, and phagocytic activity, when compared with those in the control group. In conclusion, PSK was useful as a maintenance therapy for patients after their curative surgical operations for colorectal cancer. The beneficial effects were probably due to the activation of leukocyte functions as one of the many biological-response-modifying (activities induced by PSK).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Akiyama J, Kawamura T, Gotohda E, Yamada Y, Hosokawa M, Kodama T, Kobayashi H (1977) Immunochemotherapy of transplanted KMT-17 tumor in WKA rats by combination of cyclophosphamide and immunostimulatory protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from basidiomycetes. Cancer Res 37: 3042

  2. 2.

    Easmon CSF, Cole PJ, Williams AJ, Hastings M (1980) The measurement of opsonic and phagocytic function by Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Immunology 41: 67

  3. 3.

    Hayashi Y, Torisu M (1990) New approach to management of malignant ascites with a streptococcal preparation OK-432 III. OK-432 attracts NK cells through a chemotactic factor released from activated neutrophils. Surgery 107: 74

  4. 4.

    Ikeda T, Sakai T, Saito T, Kosaki G (1986) Evaluation of Postoperative immunochemotherapy for lung cancer patients. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 13: 1044

  5. 5.

    Itoh I, Sakai T, Mori T (1979) Aspects of immunological antitumor agent and its clinical use PSK. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 6: 681

  6. 6.

    Iwasaki K, Torisu M, Fujimura T (1986) Malignant tumor and eosinophils. I. Prognostic significance in gastric cancer. Cancer 58: 1321

  7. 7.

    Japanese Research Society for Cancer of Colon and Rectum (1977) General rules for clinical and pathological studied on cancer of colon, rectum and anus.

  8. 8.

    Katano M, Torisu M (1983) New approach to management of malignant ascites with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. II. Intraperitoneal inflammatory cell-mediated tumor cell destruction. Surgery 93: 365

  9. 9.

    Katano M, Tanaka M, Okano H, Torisu M (1980) Ambidextrous effect of PSK on motilities of both macrophages and tumor cells. Proc Am Soc Exp Biol 39: 476

  10. 10.

    Kataoka T, Oh-hashi F, Tsukagoshi S, Sakurai Y (1977) Enhanced induction of immune resistance by concanavalin A-bound L1210 vaccine and an immunopotentiator prepared fromCoriolus versicolor. Cancer Res 37: 4416

  11. 11.

    Kondo M, Torisu M (1985) Evaluation of an anticancer activity of a protein-bound polysaccharide PS-K (Krestin). In: Torisu M, Yoshida T (eds) Basic mechanisms and clinical treatment of tumor metastasis. Academic Press, New York, P 623

  12. 12.

    Kondo M, Kato H, Yokoe N, Natsumura N, Hotta T, Masuda M (1978) Activation of the complement by immunostimulants, BCG, OK-432 (Picibanil), and PS-K (Krestin) in vivo. Gann 69: 669

  13. 13.

    Koshimura S, Shimizu R, Fujimura A, Okamoto H (1964) Experimental anticancer studies. XXI. Effect of penicillin treatment of hemolyticStreptococcus on its anticancer activity. Gann 55: 233

  14. 14.

    Kumashiro R, Hiramoto Y, Okamura T, Kano T, Sano CC, Inokuchi K (1985) Postoperative long-term immunostimulatory protein-bound polysaccharide Kureha (PSK) therapy for advanced gastric cancer. In: Torisu M, Yoshida T (eds) Basic mechanisms and clinical treatment of tumor metastasis. Academic Press, New York, p 523

  15. 15.

    Linell F, Mansson B (1954) The prognostic value of eosinophilic leukocytes in the stroma of carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Acta Rasdiol 41: 453

  16. 16.

    Mancini G, Carbonara AO, Heremans JF (1965) Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Int J Immunochem 2: 235

  17. 17.

    Mathé G, Amiel JL, Schwarzenberg L, Schneider M, Cattan A, Schlumberger LR, Mayat M, de Vassal F (1969) Active immunotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Lancet 1: 697

  18. 18.

    Mathé G, Schwarzenberg L, de Vassal F, Delgado M (1976) Immunotherapy for acute lymphoid leukemia. Lancet 1: 143

  19. 19.

    Mayer MM (1961) Experimental immunochemistry, 2nd edn. Thomas, Springfield Ill, p 135

  20. 20.

    Mitomi T, Ogoshi K (1986) Clinical study of PSK as an adjuvant immunochemotherapeutic agent against gastric cancer. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 13: 2532

  21. 21.

    Morton DL, Eilber FR, Malmgren RA, Wood WC (1970) Immunological factors which influence response to immunotherapy in malignant melanoma. Surgery 68: 158

  22. 22.

    Morton DL, Eilber FR, Holmes EC, Sparkes FC, Ramming KP (1976) Present status of BCG immunotherapy of malignant melanoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1: 93

  23. 23.

    Nagell JR, Donaldson ES, Wood EG, Parker JC (1978) The significance of vascular invasion and lymphocytic infiltration in invasive cervical carcinoma. Cancer 41: 228

  24. 24.

    Nakazato H, Ichihashi H, Kondo T (1986) Clinical results of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of adjuvant immunochemotherapy using Esquinon and Krestin for patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 13: 308

  25. 25.

    Niimoto M, Toge T, Nakano A, Yanagawa E, Oride M, Hirano M, Nakanishi K, Nosou Y, Yamada Y, Hattori T (1981) Adjuvant immunochemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer. Jpn J Gastroenterol Surg 14: 704

  26. 26.

    Nishioka K, Linscott WD (1963) Components of guinea pig complement I. Separation of a serum fraction essential for immune hemolysis and immune adherence. J Exp Med 118: 767

  27. 27.

    Nomoto K, Yoshikumi C, Matsunaga K, Fujii T, Takeya K (1975) Restoration of antibody-forming capacities by PS-K in tumor-bearing mice. Gann 66: 365

  28. 28.

    Okamoto H, Shoin S, Koshimura S, Shimizu R (1973) Studies on the anticancer and streptolysin S-forming abilities of hemolytic streptococci. Jpn J Microbiol 11: 323

  29. 29.

    Pretlow TP, Keith EF, Cryar AK (1983) Eosinophil infiltration of human colonic carcinomas as a prognostic indication. Cancer Res 43: 2997

  30. 30.

    Shiraki S, Mori H, Ito A, Kadomoto N, Yamagiwa S, Yamada Y, Noda K (1982) Adjuvant immunotherapy for carcinoma of uterine cervix with PSK. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 9: 1031

  31. 31.

    Tachibana T, Ishikawa M (1973) Quantitation of T and B lymphocyte. Jpn J Exp Med 43: 227

  32. 32.

    Taguchi T (1979) Clinical studies on PSK: combination therapy of PSK with surgery and chemotherapy. Recent Results Cancer Res 68: 236

  33. 33.

    Torisu M, Fukawa M, Nishimura M, Harasaki H, Kai S, Tanaka J (1976) Immunotherapy of cancer patients with bacillus Calmette-Guérin: summary of four years of experience in Japan. Ann NY Acad Sci 277: 160

  34. 34.

    Torisu M, Katano M, Kimura Y, Itoh H, Takesue M (1983) New approach to management of malignant ascites with a streptococcal preparation of survival. Surgery 93: 357

  35. 35.

    Tsukagoshi S, Hashimoto Y, Fujii G, Kobayashi H, Nomoto K, Orita K (1984) Krestin (PSK). Cancer Treat Rev 11: 131

  36. 36.

    Uchida A, Hoshino T (1980) Clinical studies on cell-mediated immunity in patients with malignant disease. I. Effect of immunotherapy with OK-432 on lymphocyte subpopulation and phytomitogen responsiveness in vitro. Cancer 45: 476

  37. 37.

    Ward PA, Cochrane CG, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1965) The role of serum complement in chemotaxis of leukocytes in vitro. J Exp Med 122: 327

  38. 38.

    Ward PA, Lepow IH, Newman LJ (1968) Bacterial factors chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Am J Pathol 52: 725

  39. 39.

    Watanabe Y, Iwa T (1984) Clinical value of immunotherapy by streptococcal preparation, OK-432, for lung cancer: a randomized study: In: Hoshino T, Uschida A (eds) Clinical and Experimental Studies in Immunotherapy Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 120

  40. 40.

    Watanabe H, Enjohji M, Imai T (1976) Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma: Its morphologic characteristics and prognostic correlations. Cancer 38: 232

  41. 41.

    Yoshikuni C. Nomoto K, Matsunaga K, Fujii T, Takeya K (1975) Mouse strain difference in expression of antitumor activity of PS-K. Gann 66: 649

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Motomichi Torisu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Torisu, M., Hayashi, Y., Ishimitsu, T. et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 31, 261–268 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01740932

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gastric Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Phagocytic Activity
  • Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin
  • DNCB