Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Retinal function with lens-induced myopia compared with form-deprivation myopia in chicks

  • 207 Accesses

  • 38 Citations


• Background: The retina is known to be involved in the development of form-deprivation myopia (FDM); however, it is not clear whether the retinal changes that lead to lens-induced myopia (LIM) are the same as those involved in FDM. To gain insight into the retinal mechanism(s) that cause myopia, we investigated differences in the results of electroretinography (ERG) in eyes with FDM and LIM. • Methods: LIM or FDM was induced in chick eyes by placing various powers of spectacles or an occluder over the left eyes of 6-day-old chicks. After 6 days, the spectacles or occluder was removed, refraction and axial length were measured and ERG was performed. Results for eyes treated with spectacles and those treated with occluders were compared.

• Results: Refraction and axial length changed concomitant with the power of the lens used, but components of the ERG of eyes with LIM were not related to the power of lens added. Refraction and axial lengths of eyes covered with a — 16 D lens did not differ from these values in eyes covered with an occluder. The a- and b-waves were also similar for the two groups. However, oscillatory potentials decreased significantly in the chicks with FDM. • Conclusion: Retinal function differs in LIM and FDM, as indicated by differences in the oscillatory potentials. This difference may stem from the fact that in FDM the retinal image is continuously defocused, whereas images are ultimately focused on the retina in LIM.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Bartmann M, Schaeffel F, Hagel G, Zrenner E (1994) Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens. Visual Neurosci 11: 199–208

  2. 2.

    Ehrlich D, Sattayasai J, Zappia J, Barrington M (1990) Effects of selective neurotoxins on eye growth in the young chick. In: Boch G, Widdows K (eds) CIBA Foundation Symposium: myopia and the control of eye growth. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 63–88

  3. 3.

    Fujikado T (1994) The effect of dopamine on the response to pattern stimulation: study of the chick ERG. Jpn J Ophthalmol 38:368–374

  4. 4.

    Fujikado T, Omoto T, Cho Y, Fukuda M (1987) Influence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide upon the chick ERG during development. Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jpn 9: 1256–1263

  5. 5.

    Fujikado T, Hosohata J, Omoto T (1996) ERG of form deprivation myopia and drug induced ametropia in chicks. Curr Eye Res 15: 79–86

  6. 6.

    Mangel SC, Dowling JE (1987) The interplexiform horizontal cell system of the fish retina: effect of dopamine, light stimulus and time in the dark. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 231:91–121

  7. 7.

    Marsh-Tootle WL, Norton TT (1989) Refractive and structural measures of lid sutured myopia in tree shrew. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 30: 2245–2257

  8. 8.

    Mutti DO, Zadnik K, Adams AJ (1996) Myopia: the nature versus nurture debate goes on. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 37:952–957

  9. 9.

    Raviola E, Wiesel TN (1985) An animal model of myopia. N Engl J Med 312:1609–1615

  10. 10.

    Rickers M, Schaeffel F (1995) Dosedependent effects of intravitreal pirenzepine on deprivation myopia and lens-induced refractive errors in chickens. Exp Eye Res 61:509–516

  11. 11.

    Schaeffel F, Glasser A, Howland HC (1988) Accommodation, refractive error, and eye growth in chickens. Vision Res 28:639–657

  12. 12.

    Schaeffel F, Hagel G, Bartmann M, Kohler K, Zrenner E (1994) 6-Hydroxy dopamine does not affect lensinduced refractive errors but suppresses deprivation myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 34:143–149

  13. 13.

    Schaeffel F, Bartmann M, Hagel G (1995) Studies on the role of retinal dopamine/melatonin system in experimental refractive errrors in chickens. Vision Res 35:1247–1264

  14. 14.

    Schmid KL, Wildsoet CF (1996) Effects on the compensatory response to positive and negative lenses of intermittent lens wear and ciliary nerve section in chicks. Vision Res 36: 1023–1036

  15. 15.

    Stone RA, Laties AM, Raviola E, Wiesel TN (1988) Increase in retinal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide after eye lid fusion in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:257–260

  16. 16.

    Stone RA, Lin T, Laties AM, Iuvone PM (1989) Retinal dopamine and form-deprivation myopia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:704–706

  17. 17.

    Teranishi T, Negishi K, Kato S (1984) Regulatory effect of dopamine on spatial properties of horizontal cells in carp retina. J Neurosci 8: 2279–2288

  18. 18.

    Troilo D, Gottlieb MD, Wallman J (1987) Visual deprivation causes myopia in chicks with optic nerve section. Curr Eye Res 6:993–999

  19. 19.

    Wallman J (1993) Retinal control of eye growth and refraction. Prog Retin Res 12: 133–153

  20. 20.

    Wallman J, Gottlieb MD, Rajaram V, Fugate-Wentzek LA (1987) Local retinal regions control eye growth and myopia. Science 237: 73–77

  21. 21.

    Wildsoet C, Wallman J (1995) Choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Vision Res 35: 1175–1194

  22. 22.

    Yonemura D, Kawasaki K (1978) Electrophysiological study on activities of neuronal and non-neuronal retinal elements in man, with reference to its clinical application. Jpn J Ophthalmol 22: 1–19

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fujikado, T., Kawasaki, Y., Suzuki, A. et al. Retinal function with lens-induced myopia compared with form-deprivation myopia in chicks. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 235, 320–324 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01739642

Download citation


  • Public Health
  • Retina
  • Refraction
  • Axial Length
  • Myopia