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Orale Prophylaxe von Herpes-Infektionen mit Acyclovir nach Knochenmarktransplantation: Eine klinische und klinisch-pharmakologische Untersuchung

Oral acyclovir prophylaxis of herpes simplex infections after bone marrow transplantation: Clinical and clinical-pharmacological study

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Summary

Viral infections are one of the major complications after bone marrow transplantation, with high mortality and morbidity. Fourty-six patients between 3 and 48 years old (median 15 years) received orally 400 mg (under age 6, 200 mg) acyclovir 4 times daily from day −12 before to day 84 after BMT. All patients were isolated in laminar-airflow units for at least 23 days with total enteral decontamination. They were concomitantly treated with anti-CMV-hyperimmunoglobulin and cotrimoxazol. During acyclovir prophylaxis seven patients had herpes simplex virus infections, all of them were seropositive before BMT.

Acyclovir plasma concentrations were measured by use of a new HPLC method.

No acyclovir was present (detection limit 40 ng/ml) in the plasma of five out of six patients with HSV infections. Three of them had non-compliance, and a lack of acyclovir absorption developed in two patients under conditioning regimen.

No drug-related side effects were observed. Laboratory tests did not show liver or renal toxicity. Take and hematologic reconstitution were unchanged.

In our study, oral acyclovir reduced the incidence of herpes simplex infections after bone marrow transplantation. Herpes infections only occurred in patients with non-compliance or lack of acyclovir absorption.

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Abbreviations

BMT:

bone marrow transplantation

CMV:

Cytomegalie-Virus

HPLC:

Hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographie

HSV:

Herpes simplex-Virus

KMT:

Knochenmark-transplantation

VZV:

Varizella-Zoster-Virus

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Herrn Prof. Dr. H.D. Waller zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet

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Ehninger, G., Vallbracht, A., Schüch, K. et al. Orale Prophylaxe von Herpes-Infektionen mit Acyclovir nach Knochenmarktransplantation: Eine klinische und klinisch-pharmakologische Untersuchung. Klin Wochenschr 64, 570–574 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01735321

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Key words

  • Acyclovir, bioavailability
  • Drug monitoring
  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Herpes infections, prevention and control