Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 12, Issue 1–2, pp 15–16 | Cite as

Microanalysis of Alzheimer disease NFT and plaques

  • R. C. Moretz
  • K. Iqbal
  • H. M. Wisniewski


Electron probe energy dispersive microanalysis of isolated andin situ neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic (senile) plaque cores have been done to investigate the levels of Al, Si, Ca and Fe in the leading lesions of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Varying levels of Si and Al, and to a lesser extent Ca, have been co-localized in about one half of the NFT and plaques examined using X-ray mapping. The variability of detection and the low levels of Al present indicates that aluminum is not required for the formation of the NFT and that aluminosilicates are not involved in the formation of the plaque core.


Aluminum Geochemistry Alzheimer Disease Vary Level Electron Probe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bancher, C., Lassmann, H., Budka, al. 1987. Neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: antigenic similarities and differences. Microtuble-associated protein tau antigenicity is prominent in all types of tangles.Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin),74, 39–46.Google Scholar
  2. Bobin, S.A., Currie, J.R., Merz, P.A.,et al. 1987. The comparative immunoreactivities of brain amyloids in Alzheimer's disease and scrapie.Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin),74, 313–323.Google Scholar
  3. Candy, J.M., Edwardson, J.A., Klinowski, J.,et al. 1985. Co-localization of aluminium and silicon in senile plaques: implication for the neurochemical pathology of Alzheimer's disease. In: J. Traber and W.H. Gispin (eds.),Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type: Early Diagnosis, Neuropathology and Animal Models, pp. 183–197. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Candy, J.M., Klinowski, J.,et al. 1986a. Aluminosilicates and senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease.Lancet,i, 354–357.Google Scholar
  5. Candy, J.M., Oakley, A.E., Atack, J.,et al. 1984. New observations on the nature of senile plaque cores. In: E.S. Vizi and K. Magyar (eds.), Regulation of Transmitter Function.Proc. Fifth Meeting of the European Society of Neurochemistry, pp.302–304. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  6. Candy, J.M., Perry, E.K., Perry, R.H.,et al. 1986b. The current status of the cortical cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In: D.F. Swaab, E. Fliers, M. Mirmiran, W.A. Van Gool and F. Van Haaren (eds.),Progress in Brain Research, Vol.70, 105–132.Google Scholar
  7. Castano, E.M., Ghiso, J., Prelli, F.,et al. 1986.In vitro formation of amyloid fibrils from two synthetic peptides of different lengths homologous to Alzheimer's disease beta-protein.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.,141, 782–789.Google Scholar
  8. Garruto, R.M. 1984. Search for the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia of Guam: deposition of heavy metals and essential minerals in the central nervous system. In: K.M. Chen and Y. Yase (eds.),Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Asia and Oceania, pp.391–422. National Taiwan University, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  9. Garruto, R.M., Fukatsu, R., Yanagihara, R.,et al. 1984. Imaging of calcium and aluminum in neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons in parkinsonism-dementia of Guam.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA,81, 1875–1879.Google Scholar
  10. Garruto, R.M., Swyt, C., Fiori, C.E.,et al. 1985. Intraneuronal deposition of calcium and aluminium in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of Guam.Lancet,ii, 1353.Google Scholar
  11. Garruto, R.M., Swyt, C., Yanagihara, R.,et al. 1986. Intraneuronal co-localization of silicon with calcium and aluminum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism with dementia of Guam.New England J. Med.,315, 711–712.Google Scholar
  12. Garruto, R.M. and Yase, Y. 1986. Neurodegenerative disorders of the western Pacific: the search for mechanisms of pathogenesis.Trends Neurosci.,9, 368–374.Google Scholar
  13. Iqbal, K., Zaidi, T., Thompson, al. 1984. Alzheimer paired helical filaments: bulk isolation, solubility, and protein composition.Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin),62, 167–177.Google Scholar
  14. Joachim, C.L., Morris, J.H., Kosik, K.S. and Selkoe, D.J. 1987. Tau antisera recognizes neurofibrillary tangles in a range of neurodegenerative disorders.Annals Neurol.,22, 514–520.Google Scholar
  15. Kirschner, D.A., Inouye, H., Duffy, L.K.,et al. 1987. Synthetic peptide homologous to beta protein from Alzheimer disease forms amyloid-like fibrilsin vitro.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA,84, 6953–6957.Google Scholar
  16. Perl, D.P. and Brody, A.R. 1980a. Alzheimer's disease: X-ray spectrometric evidence of aluminum accumulation in neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons.Science,208, 297–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Perl, D.P. and Brody, A.R. 1980b. Detection of aluminum by SEM — X-ray spectrometry within neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons of Alzheimer's disease.Neurotoxicology,1, 133–137.Google Scholar
  18. Perl, D.P., Gajdusek, D.C., Garruto, R.M.,et al. 1982. Intraneuronal aluminum accumulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia of Guam.Science,217, 1053–1055.Google Scholar
  19. Perl, D.P. and Pendlebury, W.W. 1986. Aluminum neurotoxicity — potential role in the pathogenesis of neurofibrillary tangle formation.Can. J. Neurol. Sci.,13, 441–445.Google Scholar
  20. Roher, A., Wolfe, D., Palutke, M. and Kukuruga, D. 1986. Purification, ultrastracture, and chemical analysis of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque core protein.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA,83, 2662–2666.Google Scholar
  21. Stem, A.J., Perl, D.P., Munoz-Garcia, D.,et al. 1986. Investigation of silicon and aluminum content in isolated senile plaque cores by laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA).J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.,45, 361.Google Scholar
  22. Wisniewski, H.M., Moretz, R.C., Sturman, J.A., et al. 1988. Aluminum neurotoxicity in mammals.Environ. Geochem. Health (this issue).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sciences and Technology Letters 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Moretz
    • 1
  • K. Iqbal
    • 1
  • H. M. Wisniewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Departments of Pathological Neurobiology and Pathological BiochemistryNew York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental DisabilitiesStaten IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations