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Cultural dimensions in management and planning


The nature of management skills is such that they are culturally specific: a management technique or philosophy that is appropriate in one national culture is not necessarily appropriate in another. The paper describes the scope of (work-related) cultural differences as they were revealed by research in more than 50 countries around the world and discusses how these differences affect the validity of management techniques and philosophies in various countries within the functioning and meaning of planning.

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Additional information

The author is with the Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation, the Netherlands. This paper is a shorter version of the first part of a report MAN DEV/28. “Culture and Management Development”, written on behalf of the UNDP/ILO Interregional Project “Co-operation among Management Development Institutions” and published by the International Labour Office, Management Development Branch, Training Department, Geneva 1983.

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Hofstede, G. Cultural dimensions in management and planning. Asia Pacific J Manage 1, 81–99 (1984).

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  • Cultural Difference
  • Management Technique
  • Management Skill
  • Cultural Dimension
  • National Culture