Asia Pacific Journal of Management

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 81–99 | Cite as

Cultural dimensions in management and planning

  • Geert Hofstede


The nature of management skills is such that they are culturally specific: a management technique or philosophy that is appropriate in one national culture is not necessarily appropriate in another. The paper describes the scope of (work-related) cultural differences as they were revealed by research in more than 50 countries around the world and discusses how these differences affect the validity of management techniques and philosophies in various countries within the functioning and meaning of planning.


Cultural Difference Management Technique Management Skill Cultural Dimension National Culture 
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Copyright information

© School of Management, National University of Singapore 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geert Hofstede

There are no affiliations available

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