Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys

II. General View of Troop Fission of Japanese Monkeys

Abstract

The troop fission of Japanese monkeys has been observed in 11 troops, and the total number of fissions observed numbered 22. Examined cases of fission relative to season, amount of food, troop size and socionomic sex ratio of the main troop and to individuals that acted as nucleus in forming a branch troop and females, exhibited variance, not being uniform. But inquiry into troop fission as seen from the standpoint of the mechanism maintained by Japanese monkeys' society indicated (1) troop fission checks the growth of troop size and increases the socionomic sex ratio of the main troop, (2) troop fission is an effective mechanism for the maintenance of class structure among adult males, and (3) the possibility that troop fission functions to check inbreeding.

Thus, it must be said in general that troop fission, along with single desertions of males, plays a very important role as one mechanism for the maintenance of the society of Japanese monkey. However, the branch troop is often composed of a large number of males and a small number of females; in short, it is under very difficult conditions that a branch troop starts on its way to becoming a fully established Japanese monkey troop.

The troop fission is an effective mechanism for the maintenance of the main troop, but not too effective for that of the branch troop.

It cannot be said that there are abundant data on troop fission of primates other than Japanese monkey. But, from limited data, we can find various forms of troop fission according to each species, and it may be ultimately related to the maintenance mechanism of the primate society.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Altmann, S. A., 1959. Field observations on a howling monkey society.J. Mammal., 40: 317–330.

  2. Carpenter, C. R., 1934. A field study of the behavior and social relations of howling monkeys.Comp. Psychol. Monograph, 10(48): 1–168.

  3. ——, 1953. Grouping behavior of howling monkeys.Extrate des Archieves Neerlandaises de Zoologie, X(2): 45–50.

  4. ——, 1962. Field studies of a primate population. In:Roots of Behavior,E. L. Bliss, (ed.) New York: Harper & Row: 286–294.

  5. --, 1965. The howlers of Barro Colorado Island. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 250–291.

  6. Collias, N. &C. Southwick, 1952. A field study of population density and social organization in howling monkeys.Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 96: 143–156.

  7. DeVore, I. & S. L. Washburn, 1963. Baboon ecology and human evolution. In:African Ecology and Human Evolution,F. C. Howell & F. Bourlière (eds.) VFPA, 36, New York: 335–367.

  8. -- &K. R. L. Hall, 1965. Baboon ecology. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 20–52.

  9. Furuya, Y., 1960. An example of fission of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Gagyusan.Primates 2(2): 149–179.

  10. ——, 1965. Social organization of the crab-eating monkey.Primates 6(3–4): 285–336.

  11. ——, 1966. On the malformation occurred in the Gagyusan troop of wild Japanese monkeys.Primates 7(4): 488–492.

  12. ——, 1968. On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys, I.Primates 9 (4): 323–350.

  13. Goodall, J., 1965. Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Reserve. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 425–473.

  14. Hida, Y., 1964.Yohei's Diary. Jitsugyono-nippon-sha, Tokyo.

  15. Itani, J., 1954. Takasakiyama no saru (Japanese monkeys in Takasakiyama). In:Nihon Dobutsuki II,K. Imanishi (ed.): 284pp. Kobunsha, Tokyo.

  16. ——, 1963. The social construction of natural troops of Japanese monkeys in Takasakiyama.Primates, 4(3): 1–42.

  17. ——, 1967. The social unit of chimpanzees.Primates, 8(4): 355–381.

  18. Kano, K., 1964. On the second division of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys in Takasakiyama. In:Wild Japanese Monkeys in Takasakiyama,J. Itani,J. Ikeda, &T. Tanaka (eds.): 42–73, Keisoshobo, Tokyo.

  19. Kawai, M., 1961. On the change of leader male in Japanese monkey's troop.Yaen, 9.

  20. Koford, C. B., 1963. Group relations in an island colony of rhesus monkeys. In:Primate Social Behavior,C. H. Southwick (ed.), Princeton, N. J.: D. Van Nostrand Company: 136–152.

  21. Kortlandt, A., 1962. Chimpanzees in the wild.Sc. Am., 20: 349–367.

  22. Nishida, T., 1966. A sociological study of solitary male monkeys.Primates, 7(2): 141–204.

  23. Reynolds, V. & F. Reynolds, 1965. Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 368–424.

  24. Southwick, C. H., M. A. Beg, & M. R. Siddiqi, 1965. Rhesus monkeys in North India. In:Primate Behavior, I. DeVore (ed.) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 111–159.

  25. Sugiyama, Y., 1960. On the division of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama.Primates, 2(2): 109–148.

  26. ——, 1964. Group composition, population density, and some sociological observation of hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus).Primates, 5(3–4): 7–37.

  27. ——, 1965. Behavioral development and social structure in two troops of hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus).Primates, 6(2): 213–247.

Download references

Author information

About this article

Cite this article

Furuya, Y. On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys. Primates 10, 47–69 (1969). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730809

Download citation

Keywords

  • Adult Male
  • Animal Ecology
  • Abundant Data
  • Class Structure
  • Effective Mechanism