, Volume 10, Issue 3–4, pp 197–225 | Cite as

Social behavior of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda

  • Yukimaru Sugiyama


The author studied the social organization and behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda, between September, 1966, and March, 1967. A population of more than 50 chimpanzees became habituated to the author and was followed continuously, by means of individual identification, throughout the study period. The present article deals with the chimpanzee's social behavior, with special reference to social organization.

The central organization which controls and maintains chimpanzee society cannot be rigid dominance rank order, since agonistic interactions among chimpanzees were not frequent. On the other hand, friendly or associative social behavior was frequently observed, some of which was unique in non-human primates. Greeting behavior, especially, and begging-and-food-sharing behavior show the existence of the chimpanzee's unique communicative system, which is backed by symbolic function. This kind of communicative system appears to have an important role in the maintenance of the unique social organization of chimpanzees, which has a loose regional integration, though the animals frequently gather into parties and later split up.

Sexual activity was observed throughout the study period, but the peak was seen between December and February, during the dry season.


Social Organization Communicative System Sexual Activity Social Behavior Unique Social Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukimaru Sugiyama
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical AnthropologyFaculty of Science, Kyoto UniversityKita-shirakawa, Sakyo, KyotoJapan

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