This study investigates the assumption that scientific research taking place in universities “trickles down” to industry. Publication characteristics are used to examine the collaboration and utilization behavior of scientists employed in the computer equipment and aircraft industries. The data indicate that these industries are using research generated by university scientists and that collaboration between sectors is occurring. Four sets of factors (article, firm, industry, and university characteristics) are used to explain research utilization and publication practices. Logistical regression results confirm that university/firm proximity is associated with increased collaboration and that collaborative relationships promote firm utilization of university research. These results indicate that university policymakers should consider ways to encourage collaborative relationships between sectors to promote information transfer. Further, the result linking proximity and collaboration suggests support for academic scientific activities should be encouraged at the local level.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abu-Laban, B. (ed.) (1989).University Research and the Future of Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
Allen, R. C. (1983). Collective invention.Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4: 1–24.
Allen, T. J. (1977).Managing the Flow of Technology. Boston: MIT.
American Association of University Professors (1986). Continuing the upward climb.Academe 72(2): 3–70.
Anderson, J., Collins, P. M. D., Irvine, J., Isard, P. A., Martin, B. R., Narin, F., and Stevens, K. (1988). On-line approaches to measuring national scientific output: A cautionary tale.Science and Public Policy 15(3): 153–161.
Baker, W. O. (1983). Organizing knowledge for action. In T. W. Langfitt, S. Hackney, A. P. Fishman, and A. V. Glowasky (eds.),Partners in the Research Enterprise (pp. 109–118). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Barth, R. T. (1980). Some behavioral aspects of the coupling and performance of R&D groups: A field study. In D. Sahal (ed.),Research, Development, and Technological Innovation (pp. 91–103). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Blumenthal, D., Gluck, M., and Louis, K. S. (1985). Prospecting in academe: Benefits to industry of supporting biotechnology research in universities. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Health Policy and Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Boyle, K. A. (1986). Technology transfer between universities and the U.K. offshore industry.IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 33(1): 33–42.
Brancheau, J. C. (1987). The diffusion of information technology: Testing and extending innovation diffusion theory in the context of end-user computing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Braun, E. (1985). The science-technology interaction. In B. R. Williams and J. A. Bryan-Brown (eds.),Knowns and Unknowns in Technical Change (pp. 23–30). London: Technical Change Center.
Calzonetti, F. J., and Walker, R. T. (1991). Factors affecting industrial location decisions: A survey approach. In H. W. Herzog and A. M. Schlottmann (eds.),Industry Location and Public Policy (pp. 221–240). Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.
Carnegie Foundation (1987).A Classification of Institutions. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Carpenter, M. P., and Narin, F. (1983). Validation study: Patent citations as indicators of science and foreign dependence.World Patent Information 5(3): 180–185.
Chubin, D. E. (1985). Beyond the invisible colleges: Inspirations and aspirations of post-1972 social studies of science.Scientometrics 7: 221–254.
Clark, B. R. (1983).The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Crane, D. (1969). Social structure in a group of scientists: A test of the “Invisible College” hypothesis.American Sociological Review 34: 335–352.
Crane, D. (1972).Invisible colleges: Diffusion of knowledge in scientific communities. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Cronin, B. (1984).The Citation Process. London: Taylor Graham.
Current Contents Address Directory (Vols. 1–4) (1986–1987). Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information.
Data Sources (1983–1984). New York: Ziff-Davis Publishing.
David, P. A., Mowery, D., and Steinmueller, W. E. (1988).The Economic Analysis of Payoffs from Basic Research: An Examination of the Case of Particle Physics Research (CEPR Publication No. 122). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Center for Economic Policy Research.
Directory of Corporate Affiliations (1986). Wilmette, IL: National Register Publishing.
Dresch, S. P. (1988). On the economics of fundamental research. In J. W. Sommer (ed.),Higher Education and the State. San Francisco: Independent Institute. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Fairweather, J. S. (1988).Entrepreneurship and Higher Education: Lessons for Colleges, Universities, and Industry. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Fox, M. F. (1983). Publication productivity among scientists: A critical review.Social Studies of Science 13: 285–305.
Fusfeld, H. I. (1983). Overview of university-industry research interactions. In T. W. Langfitt, S. Hackney, A. P. Fishman, and A. V. Glowasky (eds.),Partners in the Research Enterprise (pp. 10–19). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Garvey, W. D. (1979).Communication: The Essence of Science. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Geiger, R. L. (1992). The ambiguous link: Private industry and university research. In W. E. Becker and D. R. Lewis (eds.),The Economics of American Higher Education (pp. 265–297). Boston: Kluwer.
Goldhor, R. S., and Lund, R. T. (1983). University-to-industry advanced technology transfer.Research Policy 12: 121–152.
Haeffner, E. A. (1973). The innovation process.Technology Review 75(5): 18–25.
Hagstrom, W. O. (1965).The Scientific Community. New York: Basic Books.
Herner, S. (1954). Information gathering habits of workers in pure and applied science.Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 46(1): 228–236.
Hoenack, S. A. (1989). Group behavior and economic growth.Social Science Quarterly 70(3): 744–764.
Hoenack, S. A. (1993). Higher education and economic growth. In W. E. Becker and D. R. Lewis (eds.),Higher Education and Economic Growth (pp. 21–50). Boston: Kluwer.
Jaffe, A. B. (1989a). Characterizing the “technological position” of firms, with application to quantifying technological opportunity and research spillovers.Research Policy 18: 87–97.
Jaffe, A. B. (1989b). Real effects of academic research.American Economic Review 79(5): 957–970.
Johnson, E. C., and Tornatzky, L. G. (1984).Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Johnson, E. C., Tornatzky, L. G., and Schlaaff, L. R. (1984).Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Katz, B. G., and Phillips, A. (1982). The computer industry. In R. R. Nelson (ed.),Government and Technical Progress (pp. 162–232). New York: Pergamon.
Knorr-Cetina, K. D. (1982). Scientific communities or trans-epistemic arenas of research? A critique of quasi-economic models of science.Social Studies of Science 12: 101–130.
Konecci, E. B., and Kuhn, R. L. (eds.) (1985).Technology Venturing: American Innovation and Risk-taking. New York: Praeger.
Layton, E. (1971). Mirror-image twins: The communities of science and technology in 19th-century America.Technology and Culture 12(4): 562–580.
Lieberman, M. B. (1978). A literature citation study of science-technology coupling in electronics.Proceedings of the IEEE 66(1): 5–13.
Lievrouw, L. A. (1989). The invisible college reconsidered: Bibliometrics and the development of scientific communication theory.Communication Research 16(5): 615–628.
Low, G. M. (1983). The organization of industrial relationships in universities. In T. W. Langfitt, S. Hackney, A. P. Fishman, and A. V. Glowasky (eds.),Partners in the Research Enterprise (pp. 68–80). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Lund, L. (1986).Locating Corporate R&D Facilities (Report No. 892). New York: The Conference Board.
Mansfield, E. (1982). Technology transfer, innovation and public policy. In D. Sahal (ed.),Research, Development, and Technological Innovation (pp. 15–40). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Mansfield, E. (1991). Academic research and industrial innovation.Research Policy 20: 1–12.
Marquis, D. G., and Allen, T. J. (1966). Communication patterns in applied technology.American Psychologist 21(11): 1052–1060.
Matkin, G. W. (1990).Technology Transfer and the University. New York: American Council on Education.
McGinn, R. E. (1991).Science, Technology, and Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Meltzer, L. (1956). Scientific productivity in organizational settings.Journal of Social Issues 12(2): 32–40.
Menzel, H. (1968). Informal communication in science: Its advantages and its formal analogues. In E. B. Montgomery (ed.),The Foundations of Access to Knowledge (pp. 153–163). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
Miller, R., and Cote, M. (1985). Growing the next Silicon Valley.Harvard Business Review 63: 114–123.
Million Dollar Directory (1986). Parsipanny, NJ: Dun & Bradstreet.
Mogavero, L. N., and Shane, R. S. (1982).What Every Engineer Should Know About Technology Transfer and Innovation. New York: Marcell Dekker.
Mowery, D. C. (1983). The relationship between intrafirm and contractual forms of industrial research in American manufacturing, 1900–1940.Explorations in Economic History 20: 351–374.
Mowery, D. C., and Rosenberg, N. (1982). The commercial aircraft industry. In R. R. Nelson (ed.),Government and Technical Progress (pp. 101–161). New York: Pergamon Press.
Mowery, D. C., and Rosenberg, N. (1989).Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mullins, N., Hargens, L. L., Hecht, P. K., and Kick, E. L. (1977). The group structure of cocitation clusters: A comparative study.American Sociological Review 42: 552–562.
Narin, F., Corrigan, J. G., and Gallagher, M. G. (1986).The Quest for Knowledge: Contribution of U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry Scientists. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association.
National Bureau of Economic Research.The Manufacturing Sector Master File: 1959–1987 [Machine-readable data file]. Cambridge, MA: Author (Producer).
National Center for Education Statistics (1989).Digest of Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
National Science Board (1993).Science and Engineering Indicators—1993. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (NSB 93-1).
National Science Foundation (1973).Interactions of Science and Technology in the Innovative Process: Some Case Studies. Columbus, OH: Battelle.
National Science Foundation (1982).University-Industry Research Relationships: Myths, Realities and Potentials. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
National Science Foundation (1989).Academic Science/Engineering: R&D Funds Fiscal Year 1987. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Paisley, W. (1972). The role of invisible colleges in scientific information transfer.Educational Researcher 1(4): 5–19.
Perez, C., and Soete, L. (1988). Catching up in technology: Entry barriers and windows of opportunity. In G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg, and L. Soete (eds.),Technical Change and Economic Theory (pp. 458–479). London: Pinter.
Peters, L. S., and Fusfeld, H. I. (1982). Current U.S. university/industry research connections. InUniversity-Industry Research Relationships: Selected Studies (pp. 1–161). Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Powers, D. R., Powers, M. F., Betz, F., and Aslanian, C. B. (1988).Higher Education in Partnership with Industry. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Prager, D. J., and Omenn, G. S. (1980). Research, innovation and university-industry linkages.Science 207: 379–384.
Premus, R. (1982).Location of High Technology Firms and Regional Economic Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Price, D. J. de S. (1965). Is technology historically independent of science? A study in statistical histography.Technology and Culture 6: 553–568.
Pritchard, A. (1969). Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics?Journal of Documentation 25(4): 348–349.
Research and Planning Institute (1980).Case Studies Examining the Role of Government R&D Contract Funding in the Early History of High Technology Companies. Cambridge, MA: Author.
Rogers, E. M. (1988). The role of the research university in the spin-off of high-technology companies. In K. Gronhaug and G. Kaufmann (eds.),Innovation: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective (pp. 443–455). Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
Rosenberg, N. (1990). Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?Research Policy 19: 165–174.
Rosenbloom, R. S., and Wolek, F. W. (1970).Technology and Information Transfer: A Survey of Practice in Industrial Organizations. Boston: Harvard University.
Schubert, A. (1988). Quantitative studies of science: A current bibliography.Scientometrics 13 (3–4): 139–172.
Science Citation Index (1985–1988) Compact disk. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information.
Slaughter, S. (1990).The Higher Learning and High Technology: Dynamics of Higher Education Policy Formation. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Small, H., and Greenlee, E. (1979).A Citation and Publication Analysis of U.S. Industrial Organizations. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Stankiewicz, R. (1986).Academics and Entrepreneurs: Developing University-Industry Relations. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Statistics Canada (1988).Universities: Enrollment and Degrees: 1986. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.
Statistics Canada (1989).Universities: Enrollment and Degrees: 1987. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.
Tornatzky, L. G., and Fleischer, M. (1990).The Process of Technological Innovation. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
U.S. Department of Commerce (1991).State and Metropolitan Area Data Book 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1990).Population Estimates for Metropolitan Statistical Areas, July 1, 1988, 1987, and 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Universities and Industry Joint Committee (1970).Industry, Science, and Universities. London: Confederation of British Industry.
Varrin, R. D., and Kukich, D. S. (1985). Guidelines for industry-sponsored research at universities.Science 227: 385–388.
Walshok, M. L. (1995).Knowledge Without Boundaries. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ward's Business Directory (Vols. 1–2) (1988–1989). Belmont, CA: Information Access.
About this article
Cite this article
Tornquist, K.M., Hoenack, S.A. Firm utilization of university scientific research. Res High Educ 37, 509–534 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01724936
- Logistical Regression
- Local Level
- Regression Result
- Information Transfer
- Scientific Activity