Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Sexual behavior of women with repeated episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis

  • 54 Accesses

  • 27 Citations

Abstract

One hundred and two women with a history of a median of six episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 204 age-matched controls participated in a structured in-depth interview on sexual behavior. Mean and median ages of the two groups were 26.7 and 26 years, respectively. Sexual characteristics, associated with VVC in crude analyses, were adjusted in multifactorial analyses for coital frequency, experience of casual sex, vaginal irritation, smoking, alcohol habits, and having a steady partner. In addition, education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, was added in the multifactorial analyses. VVC was not associated with multiple sexual partners or ever-experience of causal sex. Sexual variables that remained significant or were of borderline significance after adjustment were: age at first intercourse (p=0.001), casual sex partners the previous month (odds ratio (OR)=3.1), sex during menstruation (OR=1.7), regular oral sex (OR=2.4), experience of anal intercourse ever (OR=2.4), oral intercourse the last month (OR=3.1), and frequency of oral intercourse (p=0.02). Thus, the study indicates that certain sexual activities are associated with repeated episodes of VVC.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Moi H. Epidemiologic aspects of vaginitis and vaginosis in Scandinavia. In: Horowitz BJ, Mårdh P-A (eds), Vaginitis and vaginosis. New York, 1991.

  2. 2.

    Kent HL. Epidemiology of vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165: 1168–1176.

  3. 3.

    Sobel JD. Candidal vulvovaginitis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1993; 36: 153–165.

  4. 4.

    Berg AI, Heidrich FE, Fihn SD, Bergman JJ, Wood RW, Stamm WE, Holmes KK. Establishing the cause of symptoms in women in a family practice. J Am Med Ass 1984; 251: 620–625.

  5. 5.

    Hurley R. Inveterate vaginal thrush. Practitioner 1975; 215: 753–757.

  6. 6.

    Reed BD. Risk factors for Candida vulvovaginitis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1992; 47: 551–660.

  7. 7.

    Thin RN, Leighton M, Dixon MJ. How often is genital yeast infection sexually transmitted? Br Med J 1977; 2: 93–94.

  8. 8.

    Sobel JD. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 152: 924–930.

  9. 9.

    Buch A, Christensen ES. Treatment of vaginal candidosis with natamycin and effect of treating the partner at the same time. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982; 61: 393–396.

  10. 10.

    Padian NS, Shiboski SC, Jewell NP. Female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Med Ass 1991; 266: 1664–1667.

  11. 11.

    Granger SE. The aetiology and pathogenesis of vaginal candidosis: An update. Br J Clin Pract 1992; 46: 258–259.

  12. 12.

    SAS Institute Inc. JMP users guide. Cary, NC, 1989.

  13. 13.

    Spinillo A, Pizzoli G, Colonna L, Nicola S, De Seta F, Guaschino S. Epidemiologic characteristics of women with idiopathic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81: 721–727.

  14. 14.

    Forssman L, Milson I. Treatment of recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 152: 959–964.

  15. 15.

    Milsom I, Forssman L. Repeated candidiasis: Reinfection or recrudescence? A review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 152: 956–959.

  16. 16.

    Ginter GG, Soyer, Rieger E. Vaginal yeast colonization and promiscuity: A study of 197 prostitutes. Mycoses 1992; 35: 177–180.

  17. 17.

    Hart G. Risk profiles and epidemiologic interrelationships of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis 1993; 20: 126–136.

  18. 18.

    Greenberg J, Magder L, Aral S. Age at first coitus: A marker for risky sexual behavior in women. Sex Transm Dis 1992; 19: 331–334.

  19. 19.

    Davis BA. Salivary vulvitis. Obstet Gynecol 1971; 37: 238–240.

  20. 20.

    Markos AR, Wade AAH, Walzna M. Oral sex and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Genitourin Med 1992; 68: 61–62.

  21. 21.

    White DJ, Radcliffe KW. Oral sex and recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Genitourin Med 1992; 68: 199.

  22. 22.

    Warnock DW, Speller DCE, Milne JD, et al. Epidemiological investigation of patients with vulvo-vaginal candidosis. Br J Vener Dis 1979; 55: 357–362.

  23. 23.

    Davidson F, Mould RF. Recurrent genital candidosis in women and the effect of intermittent prophylactic treatment. Br J Vener Dis 1978; 54: 176–183.

  24. 24.

    Nystatin Multicenter Study Group. Therapy of candidal vaginitis: The effect of eliminating intestinalCandida. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 651–655.

  25. 25.

    Sobel JA. Pathogenesis ofCandida vulvovaginitis. In: McGinnis MR, Borger M, eds, Current topics in medical mycology. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1989: 86–108.

  26. 26.

    Davidson F. Yeasts and circumcision in the male. Br J Vener Dis 1977; 53: 121–124.

  27. 27.

    Rodin P, Kolator B. Carriage of yeasts on the penis. Br Med J 1976; 1: 1123–1125.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Dan Hellberg MD, PhD.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hellberg, D., Zdolsek, B., Nilsson, S. et al. Sexual behavior of women with repeated episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Eur J Epidemiol 11, 575–579 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01719311

Download citation

Key words

  • Sexual behavior
  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)