Archives of Virology

, Volume 141, Issue 12, pp 2365–2374 | Cite as

Rotavirus G and P types circulating in Brazil: characterization by RT-PCR, probe hybridization, and sequence analysis

  • J. P. G. Leite
  • A. A. Alfieri
  • P. A. Woods
  • R. I. Glass
  • J. R. Gentsch
Original Papers

Summary

We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the P and G genotypes of 130 culture-adapted rotavirus strains isolated from 181 fecal specimens of children under 5 years of age from 9 states and the Federal District of Brazil. The 4 genotypes found most commonly worldwide were also common in Brazil and P[8]G1 was the most prevalent (43%), followed by P[4]G2 (12%), P[8]G3 (6%), and P[8]G4 (6%). However, unusual types P[8]G5, P[6]G2, P[9]G1, P[9]G3, and mixed infections were responsible for 12% and 21% of the cases, respectively. Genotype G5 strains were detected in specimens collected in all 9 areas surveyed from all 4 regions of Brazil. The unusual strain diversity in Brazil suggests that when tetravalent rotavirus vaccines currently being developed are introduced into Brazil, laboratory surveillance will be essential to monitor protection against unusual strains, particularly those of genotype 5, as well as emergence of novel reassortants that may evolve from the large pool of children with mixed infections.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alfieri AA, Leite JPG, Nakagomi O, Glass RI, Gentsch JR (1996) Characterization of human rotavirus genotype P[8]G5 from Brazil by probe-hybridization and sequence analysis. Arch Virol 141: 2253–2264Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ando T, Monroe SS, Gentsch JR, Jin Q, Lewis DC, Glass RI (1995) Detection and differentiation of antigenically distinct small round-structured viruses (Norwalk-like viruses) by reverse transcription-PCR and Southern hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 33: 64–71Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beards G, Desselberger U, Flewett T (1989) Temporal and geographical distributions of human rotavirus serotypes, 1983–1988. J Clin Microbiol 27: 2827–2833Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beards G, Xu L, Ballard A, Desselberger U, McCrae MA (1992) A serotype 10 human rotavirus. J Clin Microbiol 30: 1432–1435Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernstein DI, Glass RI, Rodgers G, Davidson BL, Sack DA (1995) Evaluation of rhesus rotavirus monovalent and tetravalent reassortant vaccines in US children. JAMA 273: 1 191–1 196Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bishop R, Unicomb L, Barnes G (1991) Epidemiology of rotavirus serotypes in Melbourne, Australia, from 1973–1989. J Clin Microbiol 29: 862–868Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boom R, Sol CJA, Salimans MMM, Jansen CL, Wertheim-Van Dillen PME, Van Der Noordaa J (1990) Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 28: 495–503Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Both GW (1985) Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Browning GF, Chalmers RM, Fitzgerald TA, Snodgrass DR (1991) Serological and genomic characterisation of L338, a novel equine group A rotavirus G serotype. J Gen Virol 72: 1059–1064Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das BK, Gentsch JR, Cicirello HG, Woods PA, Ramachandran M, Gupta A, Ramachandran M, Kumar R, Bhan MK, Glass RI (1994) Characterization of rotavirus strains from newborns in New Delhi, India. J Clin Microbiol 32: 1820–1822Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Das BK, Gentsch JR, Hoshino Y, Ishida S-I, Nakagomi O, Bhan MK, Kumar R, Glass RI (1993) Characterization of the G serotype and genogroup of New Delhi newborn rotavirus strain 116E. Virology 197: 99–107Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das M, Dunn SJ, Woode GN, Greenberg HB, Rao CD (1993) Both surface proteins (VP4 and VP7) of an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain (I321) have high levels of sequence identity with the homologous proteins of a serotype 10 bovine bovine rotavirus. Virology 194: 374–379Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Devereux J, Haeberli P, Smithies O (1984) A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 387–395Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Zoysa I, Feachem RV (1985) Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: rotavirus and cholera immunization. Bull World Health Organ 63: 569–583Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dunn SJ, Greenberg HB, Ward RL, Nakagomi O, Burns JW, Vo PT, Pax KA, Das M, Gowda K, Rao CD (1993) Serotype and genotypic characterization of human serotype 10 rotavirus from asymptomatic neonates. J Clin Microbiol 31: 165–169Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Estes M (1996) Rotaviruses and their replication. In: Fields B, Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology vol 2, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Press, Philadelphia, pp 1 625–1 655Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Estes MK, Cohen J (1989) Rotavirus gene structure and function. Microbiol Rev 53: 410–449Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fang Z-Y, Shangjin J, Shuming Q, Zianfa Z, Di W, Ushijima H, Gentsch J, Yoshikura H, Glass RI (1994) Serotypes of group A rotavirus isolates determined by PCR in Hebei and Henan provinces, China. Chin J Virol 10: 316–320Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gentsch JR (1993) Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gentsch J, Das BK, Jiang B, Bhan MK, Glass RI (1993) Similarly of the VP4 protein of human rotavirus strain 116E to that of the bovine B223 strain. Virology 194: 424–430Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gentsch JR, Glass RI, Woods P, Gouvea V, Gorziglia M, Flores J, Das BK, Bhan MK (1992) Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30: 1 365–1 373Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gerna G, Sarasini A, Parea M, Arista S, Miranda P, Brussow H, Hoshino Y, Flores J (1992) Isolation and characterization of two distinct human rotavirus strains with G6 specificity. J Clin Microbiol 30: 9–16Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gorziglia M, Larralde G, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM (1990) Antigenic relationships among human rotaviruses as determined by outer capsid protein VP4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 7 155–7 159Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gouvea V, de Castro L, do Carmo Timenetsky M, Greenberg H, Santos N (1994) Rotavirus serotype G5 associated with diarrhea in Brazilian children. J Clin Microbiol 32: 1 408–1 409Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gouvea V, Glass RI, Woods P, Taniguichi K, Clark HF, Forrester B, Fang ZY (1990) Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acids from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 28: 276–282Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hoshino Y, Sereno MM, Midthun K, Flores J, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM (1985) Independent segregation of two antigenic specificities (VP3 and VP7) involved in neutralization of rotavirus infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 8 701–8 704Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaga E, Iizuka M, Nakagomi T, Nakagomi O (1994) The distribution of G (VP7) and P (VP4) serotypes among human rotaviruses recovered from Japanese children with diarrhea. Microbiol Immunol 38: 317–330Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Linhares AC, Gabbay YB, De Freitas RB, Mascarenhas JDP, Oliveira CS, Bellesi N, Lainson ZL, Ramos FLP, Valente SA (1995) Immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus (RRV-tetravalent) vaccine in Belem, Brazil (1995). Abstract presented at the Fifth Rotavirus Vaccine Workshop, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A., October 16–17, 1995Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Linhares AC, Gabbay YB, Mascarenhas JDP, Freitas RB, Flewett TH, Beards GM (1988) Epidemiology of rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in Belem, Brazil: a three-year study. Ann Inst Pasteur Virol 139: 89–99Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mattion NM, Cohen J, Estes MK (1994) The rotavirus proteins, In: Kapikian AZ (ed) Viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 169–250Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pereira HG, Azeredo RS, Leite JPG, Andrade ZP, de Castro L (1985) A combined enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus. J Virol Methods 10: 21–28Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pereira HG, Azeredo RS, Leite JPG, Candeias JAN, Racz ML, Linhares AC, Gabbay YB, Trabulsi JR (1983) Electrophoretic study of the genome of human rotaviruses from Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Belem, Brazil. J Hyg 90: 117–125Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pereira HG, Linhares AC, Candeias JAN, Glass RI (1993) National laboratory surveillance of viral agents of gastroenteritis in Brazil. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 27: 224–233Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ramachandran M, Das BK, Vij A, Kumar R, Bhambal SS, Kesari N, Rawat H, Bahl L, Thakur S, Woods PA, Glass RI, Bhan MK, Gentsch JR (1996) Unusual diversity of human rotavirus G and P genotypes in India. J Clin Microbiol 34: 436–439Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reddy DA, Greenberg HB, Bellamy AR (1989) Nucleotide sequence of St. Thomas 3 rotavirus genomic segment 9: an RNA encoding the major serotypic antigen. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 449Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rennels MB, Glass RI, Dennehy PH, Bernstein DI, Pichichero ME, Zito ET (1996) Safety and efficacy of high-dose rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines: report of the national multicenter trial. Pediatrics 97: 7–13Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Richardson MA, Iwamoto A, Ikegami N, Nomoto A, Furuichi Y (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the serotype-specific antigen of human (Wa) rotavirus: comparison with the homologous gene from simian SA11 and UK bovine rotaviruses. J Virol 51: 860–862Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sereno MM, Gorziglia MI (1994) The outer capsid protein VP4of murine rotavirus strain Eb represents a tentative new P type. Virology 199: 500–504Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Silberstein I, Shulman LM, Mendelson E, Shif I (1995) Distribution of both rotavirus VP4 genotypes and VP7 serotypes among hospitalized and nonhospitalized Israeli children. J Clin Microbiol 33: 1421–1422Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steele AD, van Niekerk MC, Mphahlele MJ (1995) Geographic distribution of human rotavirus VP4 genotypes and VP7 serotypes in five South African regions. J Clin Microbiol 33: 1516–1519Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stewien KE, Mehnert DU, Harsi CM, Stewien ET, Candeias MJG, Tanaka K (1994) Serotypes and electropherotypes of human rotavirus detected in the city of Sao Luis (MA), Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res 27: 1355–1361Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taniguchi K, Nishikawa K, Urasawa T, Urasawa S, Midthun K, Kapikian AZ, Gorziglia M (1989) Complete nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding VP4 of a human rotavirus (strain K8), which has unique VP4 neutralization epitopes. J Virol 63: 4101–4106Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Taniguchi K, Pongsuwanna Y, Choonthanon M, Urasawa S (1990) Nucleotide sequence of the VP7 gene of a bovine rotavirus (strain 61 A) with different serotype specificity from serotype 6. Nucleic Acids Res 18: 4613Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Taniguchi K, Urasawa T, Morita Y, Greenberg HB, Urasawa S (1987) Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7. J Infect Dis 155: 1159–1166Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Timenetsky M do C, Santos N, Gouvea V (1994) Survey of rotavirus G and P types associated with human gastroenteritis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1986 to 1992. J Clin Microbiol 32: 2622–2624Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Urasawa S, Urasawa T, Wakasugi F, Kobayashi N, Taniguchi K, Lintag IC, Saniel MC, Goto H (1990) Presumptive seventh serotype of human rotavirus. Arch Virol 113: 279–282Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ushijima H, Mukoyama A, Hasegawa A, Nishimura S, Konishi K, Bosu K (1994) Serotyping of human rotaviruses in the Tokyo area (1990–1993) by enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcrition and polymerase chain reaction amplification. J Med Virol 44: 162–165Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Woods PA, Gentsch J, Gouvea V, Mata L, Simhon A, Santosham M, Bai Z-S, Urasawa S, Glass RI (1992) Distribution of serotypes of human rotavirus in different populations. J Clin Microbiol 30: 781–785Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wu H, Taniguchi K, Wakasugi F, Ukae S, Chiba S, Ohseto M, Hasegawa A, Urasawa T, Urasawa S (1994) Survey on the distribution of the gene 4 alleles of human rotaviruses by polmerase chain reaction. Epidemiol Infect 112: 615–622Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. G. Leite
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. A. Alfieri
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. A. Woods
    • 3
  • R. I. Glass
    • 3
  • J. R. Gentsch
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of VirologyOswaldo Cruz InstituteRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Animal VirologyLondrina State UniversityParanaBrazil
  3. 3.Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Rickettsial DiseasesNational Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations