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Lewis Carroll and the Cambridge mathematical school of P.R.; Arthur Cohen and Edith Denman

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References

  1. 1

    The quotation is from W. H. Auden, SECONDARY WORLDS (1968), p. 143.

  2. 2

    Earlier comments on the work by the present writer are ‘The Central Argument in Lewis Carroll's THE PRINCIPLES OF PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION’, in this journal, the Fall, 1967 and ‘Lewis Carroll and the Theory of Games’, AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, PROCEEDINGS, May, 1969.

  3. 3

    Cf. Duncan Black, THE THEORY OF COMMITTEES AND ELECTIONS (1958), chapter XX.

  4. 4

    Cf. Sir Charles Edward Mallett, A HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD vol. iii (1927), pp. 330–53, Henry L. Thompson, CHRIST CHURCH (Oxford University College Histories, 1898) p. 207 and Henry L. Thompson, HENRY GEORGE LIDDELL (1899), pp. 146–7.

  5. 5

    Entries kindly provided by the late Miss F. Menella Dodgson, for which it had not been possible to find room in the published DIARIES, are shown by an asterisk. The other entries are to be found in THE DIARIES OF LEWIS CARROLL (1953), edited by Roger Lancelyn Green, vol. ii, at the appropriate dates.

  6. 6

    For evidence of earlier disagreement and their quarrel some months later, see Derek Hudson, LEWIS CARROLL (1954), pp. 245–7.

  7. 7

    Cf. Roger Lancelyn Green, ‘Lewis Carroll and THE ST. JAMES'S GAZETTE’, NOTES AND QUERIES, 7 April 1945, and Roger Lancelyn Green (ed.), THE LEWIS CARROLL HANDBOOK, BEING A NEW VERSION OF A HANDBOOK OF THE LITERATURE OF THE REV. C. L. DODGSON BY SIDNEY HERBERT WILLIAMS AND FALCONER MADAN (1962), pp. 110–11. The pamphlet is reprinted in Alexander Woollcott (ed.), THE COMPLETE WORKS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1939), pp. 1201–11 and in Roger Lancelyn Green (ed.) THE WORKS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1965), pp. 1059–66.

  8. 9

    Cf. H. J. Hanham, ELECTIONS AND PARTY MANAGEMENT, POLITICS IN THE TIME OF DISRAELI AND GLADSTONE (1959), pp. x–xi and 403–4. Cf. also Charles Seymour, ELECTORAL REFORM IN ENGLAND AND WALES, THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF THE PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE, 1832–1885 (1915), pp. 348–9.

  9. 10

    The figures have been complied from DOD'S PARLIAMENTARY COMPANION, 49th year (1881), pp. 116–157, 54th year (1886), pp. x–xi and 403–4. Cf. also Charles Seymour, ELECTORAL REFORM IN ENGLAND AND WALES, THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF THE PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE, 1832–1885 (1915), pp. 348–9.

  10. 11

    Cf. FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SOCIETY (1885) and Clarence G. Hoag and George H. Hallett, Jr., PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION (1926), pp. 164–7 and 179–81.

  11. 12

    Information got from the minutes which Carroll wrote as Curator (Christ Church Common Room).

  12. 13

    The Representation of Minorities' by G. Shaw Lefevre,op. cit. pp. 714–33. See Shaw Lefevre's footnote at p. 731.

  13. 14

    And before that in the two articles ‘Parliamentary Elections’, THE ST. JAMES'S GAZETTE, 5 July 1884, and ‘Redistribution’,ibid., 11 October 1884.

  14. 15

    In a miscellaneous collection ‘Letters 1884–1906’.

  15. 16

    Letter Book No. ii, folio 158 of the P.R. Society.

  16. 17

    Letter Book No. ii, folio 168.

  17. 18

    It is of some interest in this connexion that the library of Lincoln's Inn contains no publication on P.R. of the period before 1885.

  18. 19

    Information from W. W. Rouse Ball and J. A. Venn (editors), ADMISSIONS TO TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 5 vol. (1911 etc.); J. A. Venn (ed.), ALUMNI CANTABRIGIENSES, PART II, FROM 1752 to 1900, 6 vol. (1940 etc.); Joseph Foster, MEN AT THE BAR (1881); DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY; Frederic Boase, MODERN ENGLISH BIOGRAPHY, 6 vol. (1892–1921), and the published admission registers on the Inns of Court.

  19. 20

    Cf. MEMORIES OF JOHN WESTLAKE (1914), chapter iv, ‘Public Affairs’ by Lord Courtney.

  20. 21

    Obituary notice, THE TIMES, 22 March 1884. The writer, probably Leonard Courtney, goes on to pay suitable tribute to Droop's devotion to P.R. in the last year of his life. The library of the P.R. Society (now the Electoral Reform Society) has preserved a few letters from Droop which give a singularly clear impression of the man.

  21. 22

    Cf. G. P. Gooch, LIFE OF LORD COURTNEY (1920).

  22. 23

    The letter written in 1858 to Fawcett by W. Hopkins, the famous Cambridge coach, is, in regard to the origins of the Cambridge School, intriguing but quite inconclusive. Cf. Leslie Stephen, LIFE OF HENRY FAWCETT (1886), pp. 45–51.

  23. 24

    Cf. MINUTES OF EVIDENCE OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON SYSTEMS OF ELECTIONS, Cd. 5352 of 1910, pp. 77–86.

  24. 25

    THE TIMES obituary notice of James Parker Smith, 1 May 1929.

  25. 25

    The genealogical tree of the family is given in Compton Reade, THE SMITH FAMILY (1902), p. 179.

  26. 26

    Cf. J. A. Venn,Op. Cit., DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY, Lucy Cohen, ARTHUR COHEN, A MEMOIR BY HIS DAUGHTER FOR HIS DESCENDANTS (Bickers & Son, London, 1919, pp. vi. + 216 plus two genealogical tables), and including the article ‘The Right Hon. Arthur Cohen, K.C. (1830–1914)’ by A. V. Disey, reprinted from THE LAW QUARTERLY REVIEW, January 1915.

  27. 27

    Robert S. Rait, MEMORIALS OF ALBERT VENN DICEY (1925), pp. 228–9.

  28. 28

    He read with the well-known pleader, Mr. Dodgson, for whom he had a great admiration. It seems to have been reciprocated’ (Lucy Cohen,Op. Cit. p. 18.

  29. 29

    When Hassard Hume Dodgson died, in September 1884, Stuart Dodgson Collingwood was still a boy, and Collingwood's biography fails to appreciate Carroll's friendship with his uncle.

  30. 30

    Lucy Cohen,Op. Cit. p. 47.

  31. 31

    Cf. Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1898), p. 72.

  32. 32

    Cohen's daughter remarks that ‘Late in life he was tempted for the first time to real Alice in Wonderland [sic.] .... But he did not appreciate the humor of the book, and he could not understand why it had become a classic’ (Lucy Cohen,Op. Cit. p. 54).

  33. 33

    On the general theme involved, the reader may with advantage consult the short book AXIOMATICS (1962) by Robert Blanche.

  34. 34

    The photograph of Grace is plate 39 in Helmut Gernsheim's LEWIS CARROLL PHOTOGRAPHER (1949).

  35. 35

    Cf. Derek Hudson, LEWIS CARROLL (1954), pp. ix–x.

  36. 36

    Much of ‘Purity of Election’ is quoted in Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1898), pp. 232–4. Carroll had fifty copies of the letter handsomely printed as a single sheet; cf. THE LEWIS CARROLL HANDBOOK (ed. Roger Lancelyn Green), p. 103. A copy of the sheet is available in the Bodleian.

  37. 37

    H. Essenhigh Corke and G. Clarke Nuttall, WILD FLOWERS AS THEY GROW (1911), vol. iv, pp. 20–21. The German popular name is SCHACHBLUME, ‘chess flower’.

  38. 38

    Cf. Isa Bowman, THE STORY OF LEWIS CARROLL (1899), p. 74. Cf. also Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1898), pp. 150–1, and THROUGH THE LOOKING-GLASS, chapter ii, in Martin Gardner, THE ANNOTATED ALICE (1960).

  39. 39

    Cf. Richard Folkhand, PLANT LORE, LEGENDS, AND LYRICS, 2nd ed. (1892), p. 188.

  40. 40

    Afterwards Master of the Temple. For a biographical sketch see THE TIMES, 11 Aug. 1933.

  41. 41

    Lewis Carroll, FEEDING THE MIND (1907, pp. i–xii and 15–31), with a prefactory note by William H. Draper, reprinted in Roger Lancelyn Green (editor), THE WORKS OF LEWIS CARROLL (1965), pp. 1071–4.

  42. 42

    Op. Cit. pp. v–vii.

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Black, D. Lewis Carroll and the Cambridge mathematical school of P.R.; Arthur Cohen and Edith Denman. Public Choice 8, 1–28 (1970). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01718502

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  • Public Finance
  • Mathematical School