Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Diurnal and ultradian variations of plasma concentrations of eleven adrenal steroid hormones in human males

Tageszeitliche und episodische Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrationen von elf Nebennierenrindenhormonen bei Männern

  • 36 Accesses

  • 17 Citations

Summary

The diurnal variations of the plasma concentrations of eleven steroid hormones and of corticotropin (ACTH) were studied in ten young healthy males. The plasma steroids progesterone, pregnenolone, deoxycorticosterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, deoxycortisol, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, aldosterone, cortisol and 18-OH-corticosterone, as well as plasma ACTH, were measured at 30-min intervals in the morning and in the evening and at 2-h intervals during the rest of the day.

Steroids were extracted from 1 ml plasma, fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and finally quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma concentrations of ACTH were radioimmunoassayed after extraction from 2 ml plasma.

More or less pronounced circadian and episodic variations were apparent for plasma levels of all steroids studied, as well as of ACTH. According to related profiles of diurnal variations of plasma concentrations, three different categories of steroids were tentatively crystallized. Category 1 includes 17-OH-pregnenolone, deoxycortisol, corticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, cortisol and 18-OH-corticosterone, exhibiting a rhythm partly synchronous with that of the pituitary secretory activity of ACTH. Category 2, including progesterone, pregnenolone and 17-OH-progesterone, exhibited a time course of plasma concentrations assuming a regulation predominantly dictated by the testicular secretory activity. Lastly, aldosterone exerted a variation of plasma concentrations which was obviously regulated by the renin-angiotensin system under the present conditions.

Zusammenfassung

Die tageszeitlichen Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentration von elf Steroidhormonen sowie von Corticotropin (ACTH) wurden bei zehn jungen, gesunden Männern untersucht. Plasmakonzentrationen der Steroide Progesteron, Pregnenolon, Deoxycorticosteron, 17-OH-Progesteron, 17-OH-Pregnenolon, Deoxycortisol, 18-OH-Deoxycorticosteron, Corticosteron, Aldosteron, Cortisol und 18-OH-Corticosteron wurden in 30-minütigen Abständen in den Morgen- und Abendstunden sowie in zweistündigen Abständen während der restlichen Tageszeiten gemessen.

Die Steroide wurden aus 1 ml Plasma extrahiert, hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographisch fraktioniert und schließlich radioimmunologisch quantifiziert. ACTH wurde ebenfalls radioimmunologisch nach Extraktion aus 2 ml Plasma bestimmt.

Mehr oder weniger ausgeprägte tageszeitliche sowie episodische Variationen der Plasmakonzentration aller untersuchten Steroide sowie von ACTH konnten beobachtet werden. Anhand der Kongruenz von tageszeitlichen Profilen der einzelnen Plasmakonzentrationen wurden die Steroide in drei Kategorien unterteilt. Danach wurden zu Kategorie 1 die Steroide 17-OH-Pregnenolon, Deoxycortisol, Corticosteron, 18-OH-Deoxycorticosteron, Deoxycorticosteron, Cortisol und 18-OH-Corticosteron zusammengefasst. Diese Steroide wiesen einen Rhythmus auf, der weitgehend synchron zu der hypophysären ACTH-Sekretionsaktivität verlief. Kategorie 2, bestehend aus Progesteron, Pregnenolon und 17-OH-Progesteron, wies einen tageszeitlichen Konzentrationsverlauf auf, der auf eine Regulation schließen läßt, die weitgehend von der testikulären Sekretionsaktivität bestimmt wird. Die Plasmakonzentrationen des Aldosterons schließlich wiesen einen Verlauf auf, der unter den vorliegenden Versuchsbedingungen überwiegend durch das Renin-Angiotensin-System reguliert wird.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Belkien L, Schöneshöfer M, Oelkers W (1980) Development and characterisation of antisera to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and radioimmunoassay for serum 18-hydroxy-corticosterone. Steroids 35:427–437

  2. 2.

    Breuer H, Kaulhausen H, Mühlbauer W, Fritzsche G, Vetter H (1974) Circadian rhythm of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In: Aschoff J, Ceresa F and Halberg F (eds) Chronobiological aspects of endocrinology. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 101–109

  3. 3.

    Clayton GW, Librik L, Gardner RL, Guillemin R (1963) Studies on the circadian rhythm of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic release in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 23:975–980

  4. 4.

    Dale SL, Komanicky P, Pratt JH, Melby JC (1976) Radioimmunoassay of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone in plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43:803–810

  5. 5.

    Fraser R, Lantos CP (1978) 18-hydroxycorticosterone. A review. J Steroid Biochem 9:273–286

  6. 6.

    Gall H, Glowania HJ, Fischer M (1979) Circadiane Rhythmik des Plasmatestosteronspiegels, I. Physiologische Schwankungen des Plasmatestosteronspiegels innerhalb von 24 h. Andrologia 11:287–292

  7. 7.

    Gall H, Glowania HJ, Fischer M (1979) Circadiane Rhythmik des Plasmatestosteronspiegels, II. Der Testosteronspiegel in der ersten und zweiten Tageshälfte. Andrologia 11:379–384

  8. 8.

    Gallagher TF, Yoshida K, Roffwarg HD, Fukushima DK, Weitzman FD, Hellmann L (1973) ACTH and cortisol secretory patterns in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36:1058–1069

  9. 9.

    Glowania HJ, Gall H, Fischer M (1979) Circadiane Rhythmik des Plasmatestosteronspiegels, III. Bestimmung des Tagesmaximums von Testosteron im Serum. Andrologia 11:407–412

  10. 10.

    Gutai JP, Meyer WJ, Kowarski AA, Migeon CJ (1977) Twenty four hour integrated concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone and cortisol in normal male subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:116–122

  11. 11.

    Hellman L, Nikada F, Curti J, Weitzman ED, Kream J, Roffwarg H, Ellman S, Fukushima DK, Gallagher TG (1970) Cortisol is secreted episodically by normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 30:411–421

  12. 12.

    Katz FH, Romph P, Smith JA (1975) Diurnal variation of plasma aldosterone, cortisol and renin activity in supine man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40:125–134

  13. 13.

    Kolanowski J (1974) Simultaneous determination of cortisol, deoxycortisol and corticosterone in plasma and urine by competitive binding assay. Response of normal subjects to ACTH and metyrapone. J Steroid Biochem 5:55–64

  14. 14.

    Kowarski A, de Lacerda L, Migeon CJ (1975) Integrated concentration of plasma aldosterone in normal subjects: correlation with cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40:205–210

  15. 15.

    Krieger DT, Liotta AS, Suda T, Goodgold A, Condon F (1979) Human plasma immunoreactive lipotropin and adrenocorticotropin in normal subjects and in patients with pituitary adrenal disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:566–572

  16. 16.

    de Lacerda L, Kowarski A, Johanson AJ, Athanasiou R, Migeon CJ (1973) Integrated concentration and circadian variation of plasma testosterone in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:366–371

  17. 17.

    Leymarie P, Roger M, Castanier M, Scholler R (1974) Circadian variations of plasma testosterone and estrogens in normal men. A study by frequent sampling. J Steroid Biochem 5:161–171

  18. 18.

    Lincoln GA, Rowe PH, Racey RA (1974) The circadian rhythm in plasma testosterone concentration in man. In: Aschoff J, Ceresa F, Halberg F (eds) Chronobiological aspects of endocrinology. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 137–152

  19. 19.

    Nabors CJ, West CD, Mahajan DK, Tyler FH (1974) Radioimmunoassay of human plasma corticosterone: method, measurement of episodic secretion and adrenal suppression and stimulation. Steroids 23:363–373

  20. 20.

    Oddie CJ, Coghlan J, Scoggins BA (1972) Plasma deoxycorticosterone levels in man with simultaneous measurement of aldosterone, corticosterone, cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:1039–1054

  21. 21.

    Quigley ME, Yen SSC (1979) A mid-day surge in cortisol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49:945–947

  22. 22.

    Reinberg A, Lagoguey M, Cesselin F, Touitou Y, Legrand JC, Delassalle A, Autreassian J, Lagoguey A (1978) Circadian and circannual rhythms in plasma hormones and other variables of five healthy young human males. Acta Endocrinol 88:417–427

  23. 23.

    Schöneshöfer M (1977) Computer program for evaluation, physicochemical characterization and optimization of competitive protein binding assays: Comparison of four curve fitting models in peptide and steroid radioimmunoassay. Clin Chim Acta 77:101–115

  24. 24.

    Schöneshöfer M, Schefzig B, Fenner A, Weber B, Dulce HJ (1981) Evaluation of a sensitive radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin using commercial reagents. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 19:75–79

  25. 25.

    Schöneshöfer M, Fenner A, Dulce HJ (1981) Assessment of eleven adrenal steroids from a single sample by combination of automatic high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay (HPLC-RIA). J Steroid Biochem 14:377–386

  26. 26.

    Shiotsuka R, Jovonovich J, Jovonovich J (1974) In Vitro data on drug sensitivity: circadian and ultradian corticosterone rhythms in adrenal organ cultures. In: Aschoff J, Ceresa F and Halberg F (eds) Chronobiological aspects of endocrinology. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 255–267

  27. 27.

    Sippell WG, Bidlingmaier F, Becker H, Brunig T, Dörr H, Hahn H, Golder W, Hollmann G, Knorr D (1978) Simultaneous radioimmunoassay of plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol and cortisone. J Steroid Biochem 9:63–74

  28. 28.

    Sjöberg B, de la Torre B, Hedman M, Falkay G, Diezfalusy F (1979) Circadian variation on systemic hormone levels in healthy men. J Endocrinol Invest 2:131–137

  29. 29.

    Smals AGH, Peters G, Lozekoot DC, Benraad TJ, Kloppenborg PW (1980) Dissociated response of plasma testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to single or repeated human chorionic gonadotropin administration in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:190–193

  30. 30.

    Vagnucci AH, McDonald RH, Driash AL, Wong AKC (1974) Intradiem changes of plasma aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone and growth hormone in sodium restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:761–776

  31. 31.

    Vermeulen A, Verdonck L (1976) Radioimmunoassay of 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one, 4-androstene-3, 17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone and its application to human male plasma. J Steroid Biochem 7:1–10

  32. 32.

    Vermeulen A (1979) The Androgens. In: Gray CH and James VHT (eds) Hormones in blood. Academic Press, London, pp 356–416

  33. 33.

    Weitzman ED, Fukushima D, Nogeire C, Roffwarg H, Gallagher TF, Hellman L (1971) Twenty-four hour pattern of the episodic secretion of cortisol in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33:14–23

  34. 34.

    West CD, Mahagan DK, Chavré VJ, Nabors CJ, Tyler FH (1973) Simultaneous measurement of multiple plasma steroids by radioimmunoassay demonstrating episodic secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36:1230–1236

  35. 35.

    Williams GH, Braley LM, Underwood RH (1976) The regulation of plasma 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone in man. J Clin Invest 58:221–229

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Prof. Dr. med. Dr. rer. nat. M. Schöneshöfer.

Additional information

The paper was presented in part to the Joint Congress of the Scandinavian and German Societies of Clinical Chemistry, Hamburg 8. — 11.10.1980

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kage, A., Fenner, A., Weber, B. et al. Diurnal and ultradian variations of plasma concentrations of eleven adrenal steroid hormones in human males. Klin Wochenschr 60, 659–666 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01716798

Download citation

Key words

  • Circadian rhythmicity
  • Corticotropin
  • Adrenal steroid hormones

Schlüsselwörter

  • Tagesrhythmus
  • Corticotropin
  • Nebennierenrindenhormone