Infection

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 447–458 | Cite as

Clinical development of a new inactivated hepatitis a vaccine

  • E. Vidor
  • B. Fritzell
  • S. Plotkin
Review

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Feinstone, S. M., Kapikian, A. Z., Purcell, R. H. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a virus-like antigen associated with acute illness. Science 182 (1973) 1026–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2a.
    Frösner, G. G., Deinhart, F., Scheid, R., Gauss-Muller, V., Holmes, N., Messelberger, V., Siegl, G., Alexander, J. J. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in a hepatoma cell line. Infection 7 (1979) 303–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 2b.
    Provost, P. J., Hilleman, M. R. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in cell culturein vitro. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160 (1979) 213–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.
    Provost, P. J., Hilleman, M. R. An inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine prepared from infected marmoset liver. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 159 (1978) 201–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Binn, L. N., Bancroft, W. H., Lemon, S. M., Marchwicki, R. H., Le-Duc, J. W., Trahan, C., Staley, E., Keenan, C. Preparation of a prototype inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine from infected cell cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 153 (1986) 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Gust, I. D. Design of hepatitis A vaccines. Br. Med. Bull. 46 (1990) 319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    Siegl, G., Lemon, S. M. Recent advances in hepatitis A vaccine development. Vir. Res. 17 (1990) 75–92.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Flehmig, B., Heinricy, U., Pfisterer, M. Prospects for a hepatitis A virus vaccine. Prog. Med. Virol. 37 (1990) 56–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Lemon, S. M. Hepatitis A virus: current concepts of the molecular virology, immunobiology, and approaches to vaccine development. Rev. Med. Virol. 2 (1992) 73–87.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Provost, P. J., Banker, F. S., Wadsworth, C. W., Krah, D. L. Further evaluation of a live hepatitis A vaccine in marmosets. J. Med. Virol. 34 (1991) 227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Karron, R. A., Daemer, R., Ticehurst, J. R., d'Hondt, E., Popper, H., Mihalik, K., Phillips, J., Feinstone, S. M., Purcell, R. H. Studies of prototype live hepatitis A virus vaccines in primate model. J. Infect. Dis. 157 (1988) 338–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Flehmig, B., Mauler, R. F., Noll, G., Weinmann, E., Gregersen, J. P. Progress in the development of an attenuated, live hepatitis A vaccine. In:Zuckerman, A. J. (ed.): Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Alan R. Liss, New York 1988, pp. 87–90.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Provost, P. J., Bishop, R. P., Gerety, R. J., Hilleman, M. R., McAleer, W. J., Scolnick, E. M., Stevens, C. E. New findings in live, attenuated hepatitis A vaccine development. J. Med. Virol. 20 (1986) 165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Mao, J. S., Chen, N. L., Huang, H. Y., Chai, S. A., Dong, D. X., Cao, Y. Y., Zhang, H. Y., Wu, D. M., Zhang, S. Y. Development of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain). Chin. Med. J. 105 (1992) 189–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Nalin, D. R., Kuter, B. J., Brown, L., Patterson, C., Calandra, G. B., Werzberger, A., Shouval, D., Ellerbeck, E. F., Block, S. L., Bishop, R. P., Wiens, B., Schwartz, S. W., Lewis, J. A., Sitrin, R. D., Provost, P. J., Miller, W. J., Ryan, J. L. Worldwide experience with the CR326F-derived inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine in pediatric and adult populations: an overview. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S51-S55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Armstrong, M. E., Giesa, P. A., Davide, J. P., Redner, F., Waterbury, J. A., Rhoad, A. E., Keys, R. D., Provost, P. J., Lewis, J. A. Development of the formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. VAQTA (TM) from the live attenuated virus strain CR326F. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S20-S26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Flehmig, B., Haage, A., Heinricy, U., Pfisterer, M. Studies with an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. In:Zuckerman A.J. (ed.): Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Alan R. Liss, New York 1988, pp. 100–105.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    André, F. E., d'Hondt, E., Delem, A. D., Safary, A. Clinical assessment of the safety and efficacy of an inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine — rationale and summary of findings. Vaccine 10 (1992) S160-S168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Clemens, R., Safary, A., Hepburn, A., Roche, C., Stanbury, W. J., Andre, F. E. Clinical experience with an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 171 (Suppl. 1) (1995) S44-S49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Pellegrini, V., Fineschi, N., Matteucci, G., Marsili, I., Nencioni, L., Puddu, M., Garelick, H., Zuckerman, A. J. Preparation and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine. Vaccine 11 (1993) 383–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Glück, R. Immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (- IRIVs) and other adjuvants for improved presentation of small antigens. Vaccine 10 (1992) 915–919.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Peetermans, J. Production, quality control and characterization of an inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine. Vaccine 10 (1992) S99-S101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Mengiardi, B., Berger, R., Just, M., Gluck, R. Virosomes as carriers for combined vaccines. Vaccine 13 (1995) 1306–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Innis, B. L., Snitbhan, R., Kunasol, P., Laorakpongse, T., Poopatanakool, W., Kozik, C. A., Suntayakorn, S., Suknuntapong, T., Safary, A., Tang, D. B., Boslego, J. W. Protection against hepatitis A by an inactivated vaccine. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 271 (1994) 1328–1334.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Werzberger, A., Mensch, B., Kuter, B., Brown, L., Lewis, J. A., Sitrin, R., Miller, W. J., Shouval, D., Wiens, B., Calandra, G. B., Ryan, J., Provost, P. J., Nalin, D. R. A controlled trial of a formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children. N. Eng. J. Med. 327 (1992) 453–457.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Prikazsky, V., Olear, V., Cernoch, A., Safary, A., Andre, F. E. Interuption of an outbreak of hepatitis A in two villages by vaccination. J. Med. Virol. 44 (1994) 457–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Frösner, G., Overby, L. R., Flehmig, B., Gerth, H. J., Haas, H., Decker, R. H., Ling, C. M., Zuckerman, A. J., Frosner, H. R. Serological investigation of patients and family contacts in an epidemic of hepatitis A. J. Med. Virol. 1 (1977) 163–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Flehmig, B., Vallbracht, A., Wurster, G. Hepatitis A in cell culture:3, Propagation of hepatitis virus in human embryo kidney cells and human embryo fibroblast strains. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 170 (1981) 83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Heinricy, U., Hentscel, J., Pfisterer, M., Flehmig, B. Hepatitis A: biophysical characterization and electron microscopy of infectious hepatitis A virus. Zent. Bakteriol. Hyg. A257 (1983) 139–142.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Heinricy, U., Stierhof, Y. D., Pfisterer, M., Flehmig, B. Properties of a hepatitis A virus candidate vaccine strain. J. Gen. Virol. 68 (1987) 2487–2493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Graff, J., Normann, A., Feinstone, S. M., Flehmig, B. Nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus GBM in comparison to two cell culture-adapted variants. J. Virol. 68 (1994) 548–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Graff, J., Kasang, C., Normann, A., Pfisterer Hunt, M., Feinstone, S. M., Flehmig, B. Mutational events in consecutive passages of hepatitis A virus strain GBM during cell culture adaptation. Virology 204 (1994) 60–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Flehmig, B., Haage, A., Pfisterer, M. Immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus vaccine. J. Med. Virol. 22 (1987) 7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Flehmig, B., Heinricy, U., Pfisterer, M. Immunogenicity of a killed hepatitis A vaccine in seronegative volunteers. Lancet i (1989) 1039–1041.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Flehmig, B., Heinricy, U., Pfisterer, M. Simultaneous vaccination for hepatitis A and B. J. Infect. Dis. 161 (1990) 865–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Miller, W. J., Clark, W., Hurni, W. M., Kuter, B., Schofield, T., Nalin, D. R. Sensitive assays for hepatitis-A antibodies. J. Med. Virol. 41 (1993) 201–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Albrecht, P., van Steenis, G., van Wezel, A. L., Salk, J. Standardization of poliovirus neutralizing antibody tests. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6 (1984) S540-S544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Flehmig, B., Zahn, J., Vallbracht, A. Levels of neutralizing and binding antibodies to hepatitis A virus after onset of icterus: a comparison. J. Infect. Dis. 150 (1984) 461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Krah, D. L., Amin, R. D., Nalin, D. R., Provost, P. J. A simple antigen-reduction assay for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis A virus. J. Infect. Dis. 163 (1991) 634–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Gerety, R. J., Smallwood, L. A., Finlayson, J. S., Tabor, E. Standardization of the antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) content of immunoglobulin. Dev. Biol. Stand. 54 (1983) 411–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Stapleton, J. T. Passive immunization against hepatitis-A. Vaccine 10 (1992) S45-S47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Kendall, B. J., Cooksley, W. G. Prophylactic treatment regimens for the prevention of hepatitis A. Current concepts. Drugs 41 (1991) 883–888.Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Lerman, Y., Shohat, T., Ashkenazi, S., Almog, R., Heering, S. L., Shemer, J. Efficacy of different doses of immune serum globulin in the prevention of hepatitis A: a three-year prospective study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17 (1993) 411–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Conrad, M. E., Lemon, S. M. Prevention of endemic icteric viral hepatitis by administration of immune serum gamma globulin. J. Infect. Dis. 156 (1987) 56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Krugman, S. Effect of human immune serum globulin on infectivity of hepatitis A virus. J. Infect. Dis. 134 (1976) 70–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Winokur, P. L., Stapleton, J. T. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis for hepatitis A. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14 (1992) 580–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Behrens, R. H., Doherty, J. F. Severe hepatitis-A despite passive immunisation. Lancet 341 (1993) 972.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Safford, S., Needleman, S. B., Decker, R. H. Radioimmunoassay for detection of antibody to hepatitis A virus: results of clinical evaluation. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 74 (1980) 25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Zaaijer, H. L., Leentvaarkuijpers, A., Rotman, H., Lelie, P. N. Hepatitis. A antibody titres after infection and immunization — implications for passive and active immunization. J. Med. Virol. 40 (1993) 22–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Richtmann, R., Chaves, R. L., Mendonca, J. S., Konichi, S. R., Mitre, H. P., Takei, K., Dietz, K., Flehmig, B. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a killed hepatitis A vaccine in day-care center children. J. Med. Virol. 48 (1995) 147–150.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Garin, D., Vidor, E., Wallon, M., Fanget, B., Brasseur, P., Delolme, H., Caron, F., Mojon, M., Gravey, A., Humbert, G., Flehmig, B., Peyron, F. Good immunogenicity of GBM strain inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy male adults. Vaccine 13 (1995) 220–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Goubau, P., Vangerven, V., Safary, A., Delem, A. D., Knops, J., d'Hondt, E., André, F. E., Desmyter, J. Effect of virus strain and antigen dose on immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine. Vaccine 10 (1992) S114-S118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Goilav, C., Zuckerman, J. N., Lafrenz, M., Vidor, E., Lauwers, S., Ratheau, C., Benichou, G., Zuckerman, A. J. Immunogenicity and safety of a new inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in a comparative study. J. Med. Virol. 46 (1995) 287–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Theilmann, L., Kallinowski, B., Gmelin, K., Hofmann, F., Scheiermann, N., Wohland, B., Stickl, H., Maiwald, H., Moriabadi, F. K., Bock, H. L., Clemens, R., Safary, A., André, F. E. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 3 different lots of a hepatitis-A vaccine. Vaccine 10 (1992) S132-S134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Fessard, C., Riche, O., Cohen, J. H. M. Intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection for hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccine 6 (1988) 469–471.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Galy, M., Genet, A., Saliou, P. Un progrès dans le domaine de l'injection sans aiguille: le système Imule S. T. P. Pharma Pratiques 4 (1992) 261–266.Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Parent, I., Schlumberger, M., Lang, J., Soula, G., Genet, A.: Immunogenicity and tolerance of vaccines delivered by single-use IMULE system carpule. Vaccine (in press) (1996).Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Hoke, C. H. Jr., Egan, J. E., Sjogren, M. H., Sanchez, J., Defraites, R. F., Macarthy, P. O., Binn, L. N., Rice, R, Burke, A., Hill, J. Administration of hepatitis A vaccine to a military population by needle and jet injector and with hepatitis B vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 171 (Suppl. 1) (1995) S53-S60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Brindle, R., Morris, C. A., Berger, R., Kurtz, J. B. Inadequate response to intradermal hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccine 12 (1994) 483–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Binn, L. N., Macarthy, P. O., Marchwicki, R. H., Sjogren, M. H., Hoke, C. H., Burge, J. R., d'Hondt, E. Laboratory tests and reference reagents employed in studies of inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine. Vaccine 10 (1992) S102-S105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Delem, A. D., Safary, A., Denamur, F., Hauser, P., d'Hondt, E. Characterization of the immune response of volunteers vaccinated with a killed vaccine against hepatitis-A. Vaccine 11 (1993) 479–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Lemon, S. M. Immunologic approaches to assessing the response to inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S15-S19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Berger, R., Just, M., Althaus, B. Time course of hepatitis A antibody production after active, passive and active/passive immunisation: the results are highly dependent on the antibody test system used. J. Virol. Meth. 43 (1993) 287–297.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Delem, A. D. Comparison of modified HAVAB and ELISA for determination of vaccine-induced anti-HAV response. Biol. 20 (1992) 289–291.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Wiedermann, G., Ambrosch, F., Kollaritsch, H., Hofman, H., Kunz, C., d'Hondt, E., Delem, A. D., André, F. E., Safary, A., Stephenne, J. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A candidate vaccine in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine 8 (1990) 581–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Scheifele, D. W., Bjornson, G. J. Evaluation of inactivated hepatitis-A vaccine in Canadians 40 years of age or more. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 148 (1993) 551–555.Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Horng, Y. C., Chang, M. H., Lee, C. Y., Safary, A., André, F. E., Chen, D. S. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in healthy adult volunteers. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 8 (1993) 338–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Westblom, T. U., Gudipati, S., Derousse, C., Midkiff, B. R., Belshe, R. B. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis a vaccine: effect of dose and vaccination schedule. J. Infect. Dis. 169 (1994) 996–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Ellerbeck, E. F., Lewis, J. A., Nalin, D. R., Gershman, K., Miller, W. J., Armstrong, M. E., Davide, J. P., Rhoad, A. E., McGuire, B., Calandra, G. B., Provost, P. J., Midthun, K. Safety profile and immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine derived from an attenuated strain of hepatitis A. Vaccine 10 (1992) 668–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Shouval, D., Ashur, Y., Adler, R., Lewis, J. A., Miller, W., Kuter, B., Brown, L., Nalin, D. R. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine — effects of single and booster injections, and comparison to administration of immune globulin. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S32-S37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Jilg, W., Bittner, R., Schatzl, H., Rasshofer, R., Schmidt, M., Deinhardt, F. The immune response to different doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S38-S40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Loutan, L., Bovier, P., Althaus, B., Gluck, R. Inactivated virosome hepatitis-A vaccine. Lancet 343 (1994) 322–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Just, M., Berger, H., Drechsler, H., Brantschen, S., Glück, R. A single vaccination with an inactivated hepatitis A liposome vaccine induces protective antibodies after only two weeks. Vaccine 10 (1992) 737–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Glück, R., Mischler, R., Brantschen, S., Just, M., Althaus, B., Cryz, S. J. Immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virus virosome vaccine delivery system for immunization against hepatitis A. J. Clin. Invest. 90 (1992) 2491–2495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Poovorawan, Y., Tieamboonlers, A., Chumdermpadetsuk, S., Glück, R., Cryz, S. J. Jr. Control of a hepatitis A outbreak by active immunization of high-risk susceptible subjects (5). J. Infect. Dis. 169 (1994) 228–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Claesson, B. A., Iwarson, S. A. Dose response study of an inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine. J. Hepatol. 18 (1993) S41-S45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Loutan, L., Bovier, P., Herzog, C., Gluck, R. Inactivated virosome hepatitis A vaccine — reply. Lancet 343 (1994) 1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    d'Hondt, E., Delem, A. D. Inactivated virosome hepatitis A vaccine. Lancet 343 (1994) 1165–1166.Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Tilzey, A. J., Palmer, S. J., Barrow, S., Perry, K. R., Tyrell, H., Safary, A., Banatvala, J. E. Effect of hepatitis-A vaccination schedules on immune response. Vaccine 10 (1992) S121-S123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Leentvaarkuijpers, A., Coutinho, R. A., Brulein, V., Safary, A. Simultaneous passive and active immunization against hepatitis A. Vaccine 10 (1992) S138-S141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Wagner, G., Lavanchy, D., Darioli, R., Pecoud, A., Brulein, V., Safary, A., Frei, P. C. Simultaneous active and passive immunization against hepatitis A studied in a population of travellers. Vaccine 11 (1993) 1027–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Green, M. S., Cohen, D., Lerman, Y., Sjogren, M. H., Binn, L. N., Zur, S., Slepon, R., Robin, G., Hoke, C. H., Bancroft, W. H., Safary, A., Danon, Y., Wiener, M. Depression of the immune response to an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine administered concomitantly with immune globulin. J. Infect. Dis. 168 (1993) 740–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Wiedermann, G., Ambrosch, F., André, F. E., d'Hondt, E., Delem, A. D., Safary, A. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibody to hepatitis A virus. Vaccine 10 (1992) S129-S131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Berger, R., Just, M. Vaccination against hepatitis A: control 3 years after the first vaccination. Vaccine 10 (1992) 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Totos, G., Papaevangelou, G. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies for hepatitis A virus. Vaccine 12 (1994) 475.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Vandamme, P., Thoelen, S., Cramm, M., Groote de, K., Safary, A., Meheus, A. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and long-term antibody persistence. J. Med. Virol. 44 (1994) 446–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Robertson, B. H., Jansen, R. W., Khanna, B. K., Totsuka, A., Nainan, O. V., Siegl, G., Widell, A., Margolis, H. S., Isomura, S., Ito, K., Ishizu, T., Moritsugu, Y., Lemon, S. M. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J. Gen. Virol. 73 (1992) 1365–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Lemon, S. M., Jansen, R. W., Brown, E. A. Genetic, antigenic and biological differences between strains of hepatitis A virus. Vaccine 10 (1992) S40-S44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Lemon, S. M., Robertson, B. H. Current perspectives in the virology and molecular biology of hepatitis A virus. Seminars in Virology 4 (1993) 285–295.Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Green, M. S., Block, C. Apparent effect of immune serum globulin prophylaxis in the military on viral hepatitis incidence in the civilian population in Israel. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 43 (1989) 187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Green, M. S., Block, C., Slater, P. E. Rise in the incidence of viral hepatitis in Israel despite improved socioeconomic conditions. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11 (1989) 464–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Anonymous: Hepatitis A vaccination (Havrix). Curr. Probl. Pharmacovigilance 20 (1994) 16.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Hughes, P. J., Saadeh, I. K., Cox, J. P. D. T., Illis, L. S. Probable post-hepatitis A vaccination encephalopathy. Lancet 342 (1993) 302.Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Steffen, R. Risk of hepatitis A in travellers. Vaccine 10 (1992) S69-S72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Steffen, R., Kane, M. A., Shapiro, C. N., Billo, N., Schoellhorn, K. J., Vandamme, P. Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis A in travelers. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 272 (1994) 885–889.Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Rubertone, M. V., Defraites, R. F., Krauss, M. R., Brandt, C. A. An outbreak of hepatitis A during a military field training exercise. Milit. Med. 158 (1993) 37–41.Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    Jefferson, T. O., Behrens, R. H., Demicheli, V. Should British soldiers be vaccinated against hepatitis A? An economic analysis. Vaccine 12 (1994) 1379–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Brewer, M. A., Edwards, K. M., Decker, M. D. Who should receive hepatitis A vaccine? Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14 (1995) 258–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Margolis, H. S., Shapiro, C. N. Who should receive hepatitis A vaccine — considerations for the development of an immunization strategy. Vaccine 10 (1992) S85-S87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Rosenblum, L. S., Villarino, M. E., Nainan, O. V., Melish, M. E., Hadler, S. C., Pinsky, P. P., Jarvis, W. R., Ott, C. E., Margolis, H. S. Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants. J. Infect. Dis. 164 (1991) 476–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Thacker, S. B., Addiss, D. G., Goodman, R. A., Holloway, B. R., Spencer, H. C. Infectious diseases and injuries in child day care: opportunities for healthier children. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 268 (1992) 1720–1726.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Desenclos, J. C. A., Maclafferty, L. Community wide outbreak of hepatitis A linked to children in day care centres and with increased transmission in young adult men in Florida 1988–9. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 47 (1993) 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Bell, J. C., Crewe, E. B., Capon, A. G. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies among residents of a centre for people with developmental disabilities. Aust. N. Z. J. Med. 24 (1994) 365–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Hofmann, F., Wehrle, G., Berthold, J., Koster, D. Hepatitis A as an occupational hazard. Vaccine 10 (1992) S82-S84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Germanaud, J., Barthez, J. P., Causse, X. Prévalence des anticorps anti-virus de l'hépatite A chez le personnel d'un centre hospitalier. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 16 (1992) 816–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Germanaud, J. Hepatitis A and health care personnel. Arch. Intern. Med. 154 (1994) 820–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Van Damme, P., Cramm, M., Vanderauwera, J. C., Meheus, A. Hepatitis A vaccination for health care workers. Br. Med. J. 306 (1993) 1615.Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Hadler, S. C., McFarland, L. Hepatitis A in day care centers: epidemiology and prevention. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8 (1994) 548–557.Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Jacques, P., Moens, G., Vandamme, P., Goubau, P., Vranckx, R., Steeno, J., Muylle, L., Desmyter, J. Increased risk of hepatitis A among female day-nursery workers in Belgium. Vaccine 12 (1994) 958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Doebbeling, B. N., Li, N., Wenzel, R. P. An outbreak of hepatitis A among health care workers — risk factors for transmission. Amer. J. Pub. Health 83 (1993) 1679–1684.Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Lee, K. K., Vargo, L. R., Lê, C. H., Fernando, L. Transfusion-acquired hepatitis A outbreak from fresh frozen plasma in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11 (1992) 122–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Skinhoj, P., Hollinger, F. B. Infectious liver diseases in three groups of Copenhagen workers: correlation of hepatitis A infection to sewage exposure. Arch. Environ. Health 36 (1981) 139–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Poole, C. J. M., Shakespeare, A. T. Should sewage workers and carers for people with learning disabilities be vaccinated for hepatitis A. Br. Med. J. 306 (1993) 1102.Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    Vonstille W. T., Stille, W. T., Sharer, R. C. Hepatitis A epidemics from utility sewage in Ocoee, Florida. Arch. Environ. Health 48 (1993) 120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Schlosser, O., Roudot-Thoraval, F. Exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées et risque d'hépatite virale A. Bull. Epidémiol. Hebd. 12 (1994) 54–55.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Cadilhac, P., Roudot-Thoraval, F. Evaluation du risque de contamination par le virus de l'hépatite A du personnel travaillant en égouts. Enquète transversale. Bull. Epidémiol. Hebd. 31 (1994) 139–141.Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Heng, B. H., Goh, K. T., Doraisingham, S., Quek, G. H. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection among sewage workers in Singapore. Epidemiol. Infect. 113 (1994) 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Maguire, H., Poole, C. J. M., Calvert, I. A. Hepatitis A virus infection: risk to sewage workers unproved (8). Br. Med. J. 307 (1993) 561.Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Poole, C. J. M., Calvert, I. A. Hepatitis A virus infection — reply. Br. Med. J. 307 (1993) 561.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Anand, J. K. Hepatitis A vaccine for sewage workers. Br. Med. J. 305 (1992) 477.Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Koster, D., Hofmann, F., Berthold, H. Hepatitis A immunity in food-handling occupations. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9 (1990) 304–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Anonymous: Prevention of foodborne hepatitis A. Weekly Epidemiol. Rec. 68 (1993) 25–26.Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Lowry, P. W., Levine, R., Stroup, D. F., Gunn, R. A., Wilder, M. H., Konigsberg, C. J. Hepatitis A outbreak on a floating restaurant in Florida, 1986. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 129 (1989) 155–164.Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Niu, M. T., Polish, L. B., Robertson, B. H., Khanna, B. K., Woodruff, B. A., Shapiro, C. N., Miller, M. A., Smith, J. D., Gedrose, J. K., Alter, M. J., Margolis, H. S. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166 (1992) 518–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Warburton, A. R., Wreghitt, T. G., Rampling, A., Buttery, R., Ward, K. N., Perry, K. R., Parry, J. V. Hepatitis A outbreak involving bread. Epidemiol. Infect. 106 (1991) 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Kani, J., Nandwani, R., Gilson, R. J., Johnson, A. M., Maguire, H. C., Tedder, R. S. Hepatitis A virus infection among homosexual men. Br. Med. J. 302 (1991) 1399.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Leentvaarkuijpers, A., Kool, J. L., Veugelers, P. J., Coutinho, R. A., Vangriensven, G. J. P. An outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexual men in Amsterdam, 1991–1993. Int. J. Epidemiol. 24 (1995) 218–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Atkins, M., Zambon, M., Watkins, P. Hepatitis A virus infection — should susceptible homosexual men be offered immunisation. Br. Med. J. 307 (1993) 562.Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    Nandwani, R., Caswell, S., Boag, F., Lawrence, A. G., Coleman, J. C. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in homosexual and heterosexual men. Genit. Med. 70 (1994) 325–328.Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Mannucci, P. M. Outbreak of hepatitis A among Italian patients with haemophilia. Lancet 339 (1992) 819.Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Gerritzen, A., Schneweis, K. E., Brackman, H. H., Oldenburg, J., Hanfland, P., Lesesve, J. F., Caspari, G. Acute hepatitis A in haemophiliacs. Lancet 340 (1992) 1231–1232.Google Scholar
  132. 131.
    Peerlinck, K., Vermylen, J. Acute hepatitis-A in patients with haemophilia-A. Lancet 341 (1993) 179.Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    Temperley, I. J., Cotter, K. P., Walsh, T. J., Power, J., Hillary, I. B. Clotting factors and hepatitis A. Lancet 340 (1992) 1466.Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    Vermylen, J., Peerlinck, K. Review of the hepatitis A epidemics in hemophiliacs in Europe. Vox Sang. 67 (1994) 8–11.Google Scholar
  135. 134.
    Purcell, R. H., Mannucci, P. M., Gdovin, S., Gringeri, A., Colombo, M., Mele, A., Shinaia, N., Ciavarella, N., Emerson, S. U. Virology of the hepatitis A epidemic in Italy. Vox Sang. 67 (1994) 2–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Normann, A., Graff, A., Gerritzen, A., Brackman, H. H., Flehmig, B. Detection of hepatitis A virus RNA in commercially available factor VIII preparation. Lancet 340 (1992) 1232–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Mannucci, P. M., Gdovin, S., Gringeri, A., Colombo, M., Mele, A., Schinaia, N., Ciavarella, N., Emerson, S. U., Purcell, R. H. Transmission of hepatitis-A to patients with hemophilia by factor-VIII concentrates treated with organic solvent and detergent to inactivate viruses. Ann. Intern. Med. 120 (1994) 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Prowse, C. Hepatitis A virus infection: no conclusive link to factor VIII (9). Br. Med. J. 307 (1993) 561–562.Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    Robinson, S. M., Schwinn, H., Smith, A. Clotting factors and hepatitis A. Lancet 340 (1992) 1465.Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Richards, E. M., Wreghitt, T. G., Baglin, T. P. Prevalence of serum IgG antibodies to hepatitis A virus in Cambridge haemophiliacs. Transf. Med. 4 (1994) 91–92.Google Scholar
  141. 140.
    Turner, P. C., Eglin, R. E., Woodward, C. G., Dave, J. Screening before hepatitis A vaccination. Lancet 340 (1992) 1160.Google Scholar
  142. 141.
    Germanaud, J., Causse, X. Strategy of vaccination against hepatitis A. Presse Médicale 22 (1993) 1014.Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Behrens, R. H., Roberts, J. A. Is travel prophylaxis worthwhile? Economic appraisal of prophylactic measures against malaria, hepatitis A, and typhoid in travellers. Br. Med. J. 309 (1994) 918–922.Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    Gray, G. C., Rodier, G. R. Prevaccination screening for citizens of the United States living abroad who are at risk for hepatitis A. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19 (1994) 225–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Damme Van, P., Tormans, G., Doorslaer, E. V. Hepatitis A vaccination. Lancet 340 (1992) 617.Google Scholar
  146. 145.
    Bryan, J. P., Nelson, M. Testing for antibody to hepatitis A to decrease the cost of hepatitis A prophylaxis with immune globulin or hepatitis A vaccines. Arch. Intern. Med. 154 (1994) 663–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Zuckerman, J. N., Powell, L. Hepatitis A antibodies in attenders of London travel clinics: cost-benefit of screening prior to hepatitis A immunisation. J. Med. Virol. 44 (1994) 393–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Vandoorslaer, E., Tormans, G., Vandamme, P. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against hepatitis A in travellers. J. Med. Virol. 44 (1994) 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Stuart, J. M., Majeed, F. A., Cartwright, K. A. V., Room, R., Parry, J. V., Perry, K. R., Begg, N. T. Salivary antibody testing in a school outbreak of hepatitis A. Epidemiol. Infect. 109 (1992) 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Hurni, W. M., Laufer, D., Miller, W. J., Ryan, J., Watson, B. Anti-hepatitis A in the general population and in hepatitis A vaccines using saliva and serum as diagnostic media. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 694 (1993) 289–292.Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    Laufer, D. S., Hurni, W., Watson, B., Miller, W., Ryan, J., Nalin, D., Brown, L. Saliva and serum as diagnostic media for antibody to hepatitis A virus in adults and in individuals who have received an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20 (1995) 868–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Santagostino, E., Gringeri, A., Rocino, A., Zanetti, A., De Biasi, R., Mannucci, P. M. Patterns of immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in anti-HIV positive and negative hemophilic patients. Thromb. Haemost. 72 (1994) 508–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Hess, G., Clemens, R., Bienzle, U., Schonfeld, C., Schunck, B., Bock, H. L. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in anti-HIV positive and negative homosexual men. J. Med. Virol. 46 (1995) 40–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Lemon, S. M., Shapiro, C. N. The value of immunization against hepatitis A. Infect. Agents Dis. 3 (1994) 38–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MMV Medizin Verlag GmbH 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Vidor
    • 1
  • B. Fritzell
    • 1
  • S. Plotkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Pasteur Mérieux ConnaughtMarnes-la-CoquetteFrance

Personalised recommendations