Current knowledge ofBartonella species

  • M. Maurin
  • R. Birtles
  • D. Raoult
Review

Abstract

Bartonella species are now considered emerging pathogens. Of the 11 currently recognized species, four have been implicated in human disease, although only two have been encountered in Europe.Bartonella quintana infections are now being diagnosed among the urban homeless and deprived, manifesting as trench fever, andBartonella henselae has been shown to be the causative agent of cat scratch disease. Both species also cause a variety of HIV-associated infections, including bacillary angiomatosis. However, perhaps the most significant presentation of bartonellae infection is culture-negative endocarditis. The epidemiologies ofBartonella infections are poorly understood; mostBartonella henselae infections are probably acquired from infected cats, either directly by contact with a cat or indirectly via fleas. No animal reservoir has been implicated forBartonella quintana; however, infection can be transmitted via the human body louse. Diagnosis ofBartonella infections can be made using histological or microbiological methods. The demonstration of specific antibodies may be useful in some instances, although certainly not in all. Cultivation ofBartonella is difficult, as the bacteria are extremely fastidious. Polymerase chain reaction-based or immunological methods for the detection of bartonellae in infected tissues have proven useful. Clinical relapse is often associated withBartonella infections despite a wide range of prescribed regimens. Only aminoglycosides display in vitro bactericidal activity against intracellularBartonella species; therefore, they are recommended for treatment ofBartonella infections.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vinson JW: In vitro cultivation of the rickettsial agent of trench fever. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1966, 35: 155–164.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Strong RP, Swift HF, Opie EL, McNeal WJ, Baetjer W, Pappenheimer AM, Peacock AD: Report on progress of trench fever investigations. Journal of the American Medical Association 1918, 70: 1597–1599.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kostrzewski J: The epidemiology of trench fever. Bulletin de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres Classe de Médicine 1949, 7: 233–263.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Logan JS: Trench fever in Belfast, and the nature of the ‘relapsing fevers’ in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century. Ulster Medical Journal 1989, 58: 83–88.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Randhawa AS, Kelly VP, Baker EF Jr: Agglutinins toCoxiella burnetii andBrucella spp., with particular reference toBrucella canis, in wild animals of southern Texas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1977, 171: 939–942.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL, Malarkey DE, Keene B, Hadfield TL, Wilson K: Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novelBartonella subspecies. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 154–160.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Debré R, Lamy M, Jammet ML, Costil L, Mozziconacci P: La maladie des griffes du chat. Société Médicale des Hôpitaux de Paris 1950, 66: 76–79.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stoler MH, Bonfiglio TA, Staigbigel MT, Pereira M: An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 1983, 80: 714–718.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cockerell CJ, Webster GF, Whitlow MA, Friedman-Kien AE: Epithelioid angiomatosis: a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and AIDS-related complex. Lancet 1987, ii: 654–656.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Relman DA, Loutit JS, Schmith TM, Falkow S, Tompkins LS: The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens. New England Journal of Medicine 1990, 323: 1573–1580.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perkocha LA, Geaghan SM, Yen TSB, Nishimura SL, Chan SP, Garcia-Kennedy R, Honda G, Stoloff AC, Klein HZ, Goldman RL, van Meter S, Ferrel LD, Leboit PE: Clinical and pathological features of bacillary peliosis hepatitis in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine 1990, 323: 1581–1586.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Slater L, Welch DF, Hensel D, Coody DW: A newly recognized fastidious gram-negative pathogen as a cause of fever and bacteremia. New England Journal of Medicine 1990, 323: 1587–1593.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Welch DF, Pickett DA, Slater LN, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ:Rochalimaea henselae sp. nov., a cause of septicemia, bacillary angiomatosis, and parenchymal bacillary peliosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30: 275–280.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koehler JE, Quinn FD, Berger TG, Leboit PE, Tappero JW: Isolation ofRochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. New England Journal of Medicine 1992, 327: 1625–1631.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Regnery RL, Anderson BE, Clarridge JE, Rodriguez-Bar-radas MC, Jones DC, Carr JH: Characterization of a novelRochalimaea species,R. henselae sp. nov., isolated from blood of a febrile, human immunodeficiency viruspositive patient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30: 265–274.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maurin M, Raoult D:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections current knowledge. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1996, 9: 273–292.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daly JS, Worthington MG, Brenner DJ, Moss WC, Hollis DG, Weyant RS, Steigerwalt AG, Weaver RE, Daneshvar MI, O'Connor SP:Rochalimaea elizabethae sp. nov. isolated from a patient with endocarditis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1993, 872–881.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Birtles RJ, Harrison TG, Saunders NA, Molyneux DH: Proposals to unify the generaGrahamella andBartonella, with descriptions ofBartonella talpae comb. nov.,Bartonella peromysci comb. nov., and three new species,Bartonella grahamii sp. nov.,Bartonella taylorii sp. nov., andBartonella doshiae sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1995, 45: 1–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lawson PA, Collins MD: Description ofBartonella clarridgeiae sp. nov. isolated from the cat of a patient withBartonella henselae septicemia. Medical Microbiological Letters 1996, 5:64–73.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brenner DJ, O'Connor S, Winkler HH, Steigerwalt AG: Proposals to unify the generaBartonella andRochalimaea, with descriptions ofBartonella quintana comb. nov.,Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., and to remove the familyBartonellaceae from the orderRickettsiales. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1993, 43: 777–786.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Drancourt M, Birtles R, Chaumentin G, Vandenesch F, Etienne J, Raoult D: A new serotype ofBartonella henselae causes endocarditis and cat-scratch disease. Lancet 1996, 347: 441–443.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kordick DL, Swaminathan B, Greene GE, Wilson KH, Withney AM, O'Connor S, Hollis DG, Matar GM, Steigerwalt AG, Malcolm GB, Hayes PS, Hadfield TL, Breitschwerdt EB, Brenner DJ:Bartonella vinsonii subsp.berkhoffii subsp. nov., isolated from dogs;Bartonella vinsonii subsp.vinsonii; and emended description ofBartonella vinsonii. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1996, 46: 704–709.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clarridge JE, Raich TJ, Pirwani D, Simon B, Tsai L, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Regnery R, Zollo A, Jones DC, Rambo C: Strategy to detect and identifyBartonella species in routine clinical laboratory yieldsBartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and uniqueBartonella strain from his cat. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1995, 33: 2107–2113.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kordick DL, Wilson KH, Sexton DJ, Hadfield TL, Berkhoff HA, Breitschwerdt EB: ProlongedBartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 3245–3251.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Birtles R, Raoult D: Comparison of partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequences for phylogenetic analysis ofBartonella species. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1996, 46: 891–897.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weisburg WG, Dobson ME, Samuel JE, Dasch GA, Mallavia LP, Baca OG, Ma D, Sechrest JE, Weiss E, Woese CR: Phylogenetic diversity of the rickettsiae. Journal of Bacteriology 1989, 171: 4202–4206.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Relman DA, Falkow S, Leboit PE, Perkocha LA, Min KW, Welch DF, Slater LN: The organism causing bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatitis, and fever and bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. New England Journal of Medicine 1991, 324: 1514.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    O'Connor SP, Dorsch M, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Stackebrandt E: 16S rRNA sequences ofBartonella bacilliformis and cat scratch disease bacillus reveal phylogenetic relationships with the alpha-2 subgroup of the class proteobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991, 29: 2144–2150.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mason RA: Propagation and growth ofRickettsia quintana in a new liquid medium. Journal of Bacteriology 1970, 103: 184–190.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wong MT, Thornton DC, Kennedy RC, Dolan MJ: A chemically defined liquid medium that supports primary isolation ofRochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae from blood and tissue specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 742–744.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weiss E, Dasch GA, Woodman DR, Williams JC: Vole agent identified as a strain of the trench fever rickettsia,Rochalimaea quintana. Infection and Immunity 1978, 19: 1013–1020.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Myers WF, Cutler LD, Wisseman CL: Role of erythrocytes and serum in the nutrition ofRickettsia quintana. Journal of Bacteriology 1969, 97: 663–666.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Myers WF, Osterman JV, Wisseman CL: Nutritional studies ofRickettsia quintana. Journal of Bacteriology 1972, 109: 89–95.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maurin M, Roux V, Stein A, Ferrier F, Viraben R, Raoult D: Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, RFLP-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ofRochalimaea quintana from a French patient with bacillary angiomatosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 33: 1166–1171.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benson LA, McLaughlin G, Ihler GM: Entry ofBartonella into erythrocytes. Infection and Immunity 1986, 54: 347–353.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    McGinnis Hill E, Raji A, Valenzuela MS, Garcia F, Hoover R: Adhesion to and invasion of cultured human cells byBartonella bacilliformis. Infection and Immunity 1992, 60: 4051–4058.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zbinden R, Höchli M, Nadal D: Intracellular location ofBartonella henselae cocultivated with Vero cells and used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1995, 2: 693–695.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB: Intraerythrocytic presence ofBartonella henselae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 1655–1656.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roux V, Raoult D: Interand intraspecies identification ofBartonella (Rochalimaea) species. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1995, 33: 1573–1579.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mooser H, Weyer F: Experimental infection ofMacacus rhesus withRickettsia quintana (trench fever). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1953, 83: 699–701.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Noguchi H: Etiology of Oroya fever. III. The behavior ofBartonella bacilliformis inMacacus rhesus. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1926, 44: 697–714.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Noguchi H: Etiology of Oroya fever. IV. The effect of inoculation of anthropoid apes withBartonella bacilliformis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1926, 44: 715–728.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Caceres AG: Distribucion geografica deLutztomyia verrucarum (Townsen, 1913) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vector de la bartonellosis humana en el Peru. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 1993, 35:485–490.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Drancourt M, Mainardi J, Brouqui P, Vandenesch F, Carta A, Lehnert F, Etienne J, Goldstein F, Acar J, Raoult D:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana endocarditis in three homeless men. New England Journal of Medicine 1995, 332:419–423.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spach DH, Kanter AS, Dougherty MJ, Larson AM, Coyle MB, Brenner DJ, Swaminathan B, Matar GM, Welch DF, Root RK, Stamm WE:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana bacteremia in inner-city patients with chronic alcoholism. New England Journal of Medicine 1995, 332: 424–428.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Byam W, Caroll JH, Churchill JH, Dimond L, Sorapure VE, Wilson RM, Lloyd LL: Trench fever, a louse-borne disease. Oxford University Press, London, 1919, p. 1–27.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jackson LA, Spach DH, Kippen DA, Sugg NK, Regnery RL, Sayers MH, Stamm WE: Seroprevalence toBartonella quintana among patients at a community clinic in downtown Seattle. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996, 173: 1023–1026.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raoult D, Fournier PE, Drancourt M, Marrie TJ, Etienne J, Cosserat J, Cacoub P, Poinsignon Y, Leclercq P, Sefton AM: Diagnosis of 22 new cases ofBartonella endocarditis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996, 125: 646–652.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koehler JE, Glaser CA, Tappero JW:Rochalimaea henselae infection: a new zoonosis with the domestic cat as a reservoir. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994, 271: 531–535.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tappero JW, Koehler JE, Berger TG, Cockerell CJ, Lee TH, Busch MP, Stites DR Mohle-Boetani J, Reingold AL, Leboit PE: Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary splenitis in immunocompetent adults. Annales de Médecine Interne de Paris 1993, 118: 363–365.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tompkins LS:Rochalimaea infections: are they zoonoses? Journal of the American Medical Association 1994, 271:553–554.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zangwill KM, Hamilton DH, Perkins BA: Cat-scratch disease in Connecticut — epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test. New England Journal of Medicine 1993, 329: 8–13.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tappero JW, Mohle-Boetani J, Koehler JE, Swaminathan B, Berger TG, Leboit PE, Smith LL, Wenger JD, Pinner RW, Kemper CA, Reingold AL: The epidemiology of bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1993, 269: 770–775.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Childs JE, Rooney JA, Cooper JL, Olson JG, Regnery RL: Epidemiologic observations on infection withRochalimaea species among cats living in Baltimore. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1994, 11: 1775–1778.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kirkpatrick CE, Whiteley HE: Argyrophilic, intracellular bacteria in the lymph node of a cat: cat scratch disease bacilli? Journal of Infectious Diseases 1987, 156: 690–691.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kirkpatrick CE, Glickman LT: Cat-scratch disease and the role of the domestic cat: vector, reservoir, and victim? Medical Hypotheses 1989, 28: 145–149.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Regnery R, Martin M, Olson J: Naturally occurring “Rochalimaeahenselae” infection in domestic cat. Lancet 1992, 340: 557–558.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins K, Chi B, Yamamoto K, Roberts-Wilson J, Gurfield AN, Abbott RC, Pedersen NC, Koehler JE: Experimental transmission ofBartonella henselae by the cat flea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 1952–1956.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Raoult D, Drancourt M, Carta A, Gastaut JA:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana isolation in patient with chronic adenopathy, lymphopenia, and a cat. Lancet 1994, 343: 977.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Turner CMR: Seasonal and age distributions ofBabesia, Hepatozoon, Trypanosoma andGrahamella species inClethrionomys glareolus andApodemus sylvaticus populations. Parasitology 1986, 93: 279–289.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Birtles RJ, Harrison TG, Saunders NA, Molyneux DH:Grahamella in small woodland mammals in the UK: isolation, prevalence and host specificity. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1994, 88: 317–327.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lucey D, Dolan MJ, Moss CW, Garcia M, Hollis DG, Weigner S: Relapsing illness due toRochalimaea henselae in immunocompetent hosts: implication for therapy and new epidemiological associations. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1992, 14: 683–688.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Regnery RL, Olson TG, Perkins BA, Bibb W: Serological response toRochalimaea henselae antigen in suspected cat-scratch disease. Lancet 1992, 339: 1443–1445.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chomel BB, Abbott RC, Kasten RW, Floydhawkins KA, Kass PH, Glaser CA, Pedersen NC, Koehler JE:Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 2445–2450.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jameson P, Greene C, Regnery R, Dryden M, Marks A, Brown J, Cooper J, Glaus B, Greene R: Prevalence ofBartonella henselae antibodies in pet cats throughout regions of North America. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995, 172:1145–1149.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Greene CE, McDermott M, Jameson PH, Atkins CL, Marks AM:Bartonella henselae infection in cats: evaluation during primary infection, treatment, and rechallenge infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 1682–1685.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herrer A: Epidemiologia de la verruga peruana. Gonzales-Magabun, Lima, Peru, 1990.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leboit PE, Berger TG, Egbert BM, Beckstead JH, Yen BTS, Stoler MH: Bacillary angiomatosis. The histopathology and differential diagnosis of a pseudoneoplastic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. American Journal of Surgical Pathology 1989, 13: 909–920.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arias-Stella J, Lieberman PH, Erlandson RA: Histology, immunochemistry, and ultrastructure of the verruga in Carrion's disease. American Journal of Surgical Pathology 1986, 10:595–610.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    van Rhijn P, Vanderleyden J: TheRhizobium-plant symbiosis. Microbiological Reviews 1995, 59: 124–142.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Winans SC: Two-way chemical signaling inAgrobacte-rium-plant interactions. Microbiological Reviews 1995, 56: 12–31.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fullner KJ, Lara JC, Nester EW: Pilus assembly byAgrobacterium T-DNA transfer genes. Science 1996, 273: 1107–1109.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mernaugh G, Ihler GM: Deformation factor: an extracellular protein synthesized byBartonella bacilliformis that deforms erythrocyte membranes. Infection and Immunity 1992, 60: 937–943.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Scherer DC, DeBuron-Connors I, Minnick MF: Characterization ofBartonella bacilliformis flagella and effect of antiflagellin antibodies on invasion of human erythrocytes. Infection and Immunity 1993, 61: 4962–4971.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mitchell SJ, Minnick MF: Characterization of a two-gene locus fromBartonella bacilliformis associated with the ability to invade human erythrocytes. Infection and Immunity 1995, 63: 1552–1562.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Merell BR, Weiss E, Dasch GA: Morphological and cell association characteristics ofRochalimaea quintana: comparison of the Vole and Fuller strains. Journal of Bacteriology 1978, 135: 633–640.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brouqui P, Raoult D:Bartonella quintana invades and multiplies within endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo and forms intracellular blebs. Research in Microbiology 1996, 147:719–731.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Garcia FU, Wojta J, Hoover RL: Interactions between liveBartonella bacilliformis and endothelial cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1992, 165: 1138–1141.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Garcia FU, Wojta J, Broadley KN, Davidson JM, Hoover RL:Bartonella bacilliformis stimulates endothelial cells in vitro and is angiogenic in vivo. American Journal of Pathology 1990, 136: 1125–1135.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Conley T, Slater L, Hamilton K:Rochalimaea species stimulate human endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1994, 124: 521–528.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Palmari J, Teysseire N, Dussert C, Raoult D: Image cytometry and topographical analysis of proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro duringBartonella (Rochalimaea) infection. Annals of Cell Pathology 1996, 11: 13–30.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson B, Goldsmith C, Johnson A, Padmalayam I, Baumstark B: Bacteriophage-like particle ofRochalimaea henselae. Molecular Microbiology 1994, 13: 67–73.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Umemori E, Sasaki Y, Amano K, Amano Y: A phage inBartonella bacilliformis. Microbiology and Immunology 1992, 36: 731–736.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    McNee JW, Renshaw A, Brunt EH: “Trench fever”: a relapsing fever occurring with the British forces in France. British Medical Journal 1916, 12: 225–234.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brouqui P, Lecam C, Olson J, Raoult D: Serologic diagnosis of human monocytic ehrlichiosis by immunoblot analysis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1994, 1: 645–649.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Relman DA: Has trench fever returned? New England Journal of Medicine 1995, 332: 463–464.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cockerell CJ, Leboit PE: Bacillary angiomatosis: a newly characterized, pseudoneoplastic, infectious cutaneous vascular disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1990, 22: 501–512.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Regnery RL, Childs JE, Koehler JE: Infections associated withBartonella species in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21, Supplement 1: 94–98.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cockerell CJ, Berghstresser PR, Myrie-Williams C, Tierno PM: Bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis occurring in an immunocompetent individual. Archives of Dermatology 1990, 126: 787–790.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cotell S, Noskin G: Bacillary angiomatosis. Clinical and histologic features, diagnosis, and treatment. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994, 154: 524–528.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Levell NJ, Bewley AP, Chopra S, Churchill D, French P, Miller R, Gilkes JJH: Bacillary angiomatosis with cutaneous and oral lesions in an HIV-infected patient from the U.K. British Journal of Dermatology 1995, 132: 113–115.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fagan WA, Skinner SM, Ondo A, Williams JT, Anthony K, De Villez RL, Pulitzer DR: Bacillary angiomatosis of the skin and bone marrow in a patient with HIV infection. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1995, 32: 510–512.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Koehler JE, Cederberg L: Intra-abdominal mass associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a new manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis. Gastroenterology 1995, 109: 2011–2014.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Milam MW, Balerdi JF, Toney JF, Foulis PR, Milam CP: Epithelioid angiomatosis secondary to disseminated cat scratch disease involving the bone marrow and skin in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report. American Journal of Medicine 1990, 88: 180–183.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Haught WH, Steinbach J, Zander DS, Wingo CS: Case report: bacillary angiomatosis with massive visceral lymphadenopathy. American Journal of Medical Sciences 1993, 306: 236–240.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shinella RA, Alba Greco M: Bacillary angiomatosis presenting as a soft-tissue tumor without skin involvement. Human Pathology 1990, 21: 567–569.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mohle-Boetani JC, Koehler JE, Berger TG, Leboit PE, Kemper CA, Reingold AL, Plikaytis BD, Wenger JD, Tappero JW: Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical characteristics in a case-control study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996, 22: 794–800.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Czapar CA, Weldon-Linne M, Moore DM, Rhone DP: Peliosis hepatitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 1986, 110:611–613.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Young JM: Peliosis hepatitis: report of two cases. American Review of Tuberculosis 1953, 67: 385–390.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Leong SS, Cazen RA, Yu GS, LeFevre L, Carson JW: Abdominal visceral peliosis associated with bacillary angiomatosis. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 1992, 116: 866–871.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Steeper TA, Rosenstein H, Weiser J, Inampudi S, Snover DC: Bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis involving the liver, spleen, and skin in an AIDS patient with concurrent Kaposi's sarcoma. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 1992, 97: 713–718.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Spach DH, Callis KP, Paauw DS, Houze YB, Schoenknecht FD, Welch DF, Rosen H, Brenner DJ: Endocarditis caused byRochalimaea quintana in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1993, 31: 692–694.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Spach DH, Kanter AS, Daniels NA, Nowowiejski DJ, Larson AM, Schmidt RA, Swaminathan B, Brenner DJ:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species as a cause of apparent “culture-negative” endocarditis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 20: 1044–1047.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mainardi JL, Drancourt M, Roland JM, Gestin JL, Raoult D, Acar JF, Goldstein FW:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana endocarditis in an Algerian farmer. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1996, 1: 275–276.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hadfield TL, Warren R, Kass M, Brun E, Levy C: Endocarditis caused byRochalimaea henselae. Human Pathology 1993, 24: 1140–1141.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Holmes AH, Greenough TC, Balady GJ, Regnery RL, Anderson BE, Okeane JC, Fonger JD, Mccrone EL:Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 1004–1007.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Carithers HA: Cat-scratch disease. An overview based on a study of 1,200 patients. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1985, 139: 1124–1133.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Carithers HA: Oculoglandular disease of Parinaud. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1978, 132: 1195–1200.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zhao X, Ge B: Treatment of papillo-retinitis and uveitis associated with cat-scratch disease by combination of TCM and modern drugs. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1991, 11: 184–186.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Margileth AM, Wear DJ, English CK: Systemic cat scratch disease: report of 23 patients with prolonged or recurrent severe bacterial infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1987, 155: 390–404.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tan TQ, Wagner ML, Kaplan SL:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae hepatosplenic infection occurring simultaneously in two siblings. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996, 22: 721–722.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zinzindohoue F, Guiard-Schmid JB, La Scola B, Frottier J, Parc R: Portal triad involvement in cat-scratch disease. Lancet 1996, 348: 1178–1179.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wear DJ, Margileth AM, Hadfield TL, Fischer GW, Schagel CJ, King FM: Cat-scratch disease: a bacterial infection, Science 1983, 221: 1403–1405.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Margileth AW, Wear DJ, Hadfield TL, Schlagel CJ, Spigel T, Muhlbauer JE: Cat-scratch disease: bacteria in skin at the primary inoculation site. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984, 252: 928–931.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    English CK, Wear DJ, Margileth AM, Lissner CR, Walsh GP: Cat scratch disease: isolation and culture of the bacterial agent. Journal of the American Medical Association 1988, 259: 1347–1351.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Brenner DJ, Hollis DG, Moss CW, English CK, et al.: Proposal ofAfipia gen. nov., withAfipia felis sp. nov. (formerly the cat scratch disease bacillus),Afipia clevelandensis sp. nov. (formerly the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Strain),Afipia broomeae sp. nov. and three unnamed genospecies. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991, 29: 2450–2460.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dolan MJ, Wong MT, Regnery RL, Jorgensen JH, Garcia M, Peters J, Drehner D: Syndrome ofRochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993, 118: 331–336.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Waldvogel K, Regnery RL, Anderson BE, Caduff R, Caduff J, Nadal D: Disseminated cat-scratch disease: detection ofRochalimaea henselae in affected tissue. European Journal of Pediatrics 1994, 153: 23–27.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gradon JD, Stein DS: Association betweenRochalimaea infection and cat-scratch disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1993, 17: 287–288.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Perkins BA, Swaminathan B, Jackson LA, Brenner DJ, Wenger JD, Regnery RL, Wear DJ: Case 22-1992. Pathogenesis of cat scratch disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1992, 327: 1599–1601.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Alkan S, Morgan M, Sandin R, Moscinski L, Ross C: Dual role forAfipia felis andRochalimaea henselae in catscratch disease. Lancet 1995, 345: 385.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bergmans AMC, Shellekens JFP, Vanembden JDA, Schouls LM: Predominance of twoBartonella henselae variants among cat-scratch disease patients in the Netherlands. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 254–260.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Drancourt M, Moal V, Brunet P, Dussol B, Berland Y, Raoult D:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infection in a seronegative hemodialyzed patient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 1158–1160.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Caniza MA, Granger DL, Wilson KH, Washington MK, Kordick DL, Frush DP, Blitchington RB:Bartonella henselae: etiology of pulmonary nodules in a patient with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 20: 1505–1511.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Carrascosa JM, Ribera M, Bielsa I, Raventos A, Vaquero M, Ferrandiz C: Bacillary angiomatosis presenting as a malleolar ulcer. Archives of Dermatology 1995, 131: 963–964.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wong MT, Dolan MJ, Lattuada CP, Regnery RL, Garcia ML, Mokulis EC, Labarre RC, Ascher DP, Delmar JA, Kelly JW, Leigh DR, Mcrae AC, Reed JB, Smith RE, Melcher GP: Neuroretinitis, aseptic meningitis, and lymphadenitis associated withBartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae infection in immunocompetent patients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21:352–360.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schwartzman WA, Patnaik M, Angulo FJ, Visscher BR, Miller EN, Peter JB:Bartonella (Rochalimaea) antibodies, dementia, and cat ownership among men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 954–959.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Spach DH, Panther LA, Thorning DR, Dunn JE, Plorde JJ, Miller RA: Intracerebral bacillary angiomatosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Annales de Médecine Interne Paris 1992, 116: 740–742.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Larson AM, Dougherty MJ, Nowowiejski DJ, Welch DF, Matar GM, Swaminathan B, Coyle MB: Detection ofBartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana by routine acridine orange staining of broth blood cultures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 1492–1496.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Drancourt M, Raoult D: Proposed tests for the routine identification ofRochalimaea species. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1993, 12: 710–713.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Hamill RJ, Houston ED, Georgiou PR, Clarridge JE, Regnery RL, Koehler JE: Genomic fingerprinting ofBartonella species by repetitive element PCR for distinguishing species and isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 1089–1093.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Relman DA, Lepp PW, Sadler KN, Schmidt TM: Phylogenetic relationships among the agent of bacillary angiomatosis,Bartonella bacilliformis, and other alphaproteobacteria. Molecular Microbiology 1992, 6: 1801–1807.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Birtles RJ: Differentiation ofBartonella species using restriction endonuclease analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. FEMS Microbiology Letters 1995, 129: 261–266.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Birtles RJ, Harrison TG, Fry NK, Saunders NA, Taylor AG: Taxonomic considerations ofBartonella bacilliformis based on phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics. FEMS Microbiology Letters 1991, 83: 187–192.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Joblet C, Roux C, Drancourt M, Gouvernet J, Raoult D: Identification ofBartonella (Rochalimaea) species among fastidious gram-negative bacteria based on the partial sequence of the citrate-synthase gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 1879–1883.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Norman AF, Regnery R, Jameson P, Greene C, Krause DC: Differentiation ofBartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 1797–1803.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Matar GM, Swaminathan B, Hunter SB, Slater LN, Welch DF: Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a fragment of the ribosomal operon fromRochalimaea species for subtyping. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1993, 31: 1730–1734.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cooper M, Hollingdale M, Vinson J, Costa J: A passive hemagglutination test for diagnosis of trench fever due toRochalimaea quintana. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1976, 134:605–609.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Dalton MJ, Robinson LE, Cooper J, Regnery RL, Olson JG, Childs JE: Use ofBartonella antigens for serologic diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at a national referral center. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995, 155: 1670–1676.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Patnaik M, Peter JB: Cat-scratch disease,Bartonella henselae, and the usefulness of routine serological testing ofAfipia felis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 1064.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Barka NE, Hadfield T, Patnaik M, Schartzman WA, Peter JB: EIA for detection ofRochalimaea henselae-reactive IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies in patients with suspected cat-scratch disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993, 167: 1503–1504.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Amerein MP, De Briel D, Jaulhac B, Meyer P, Monteil H, Piemont Y: Diagnostic value of the indirect immunofluorescence assay in cat scratch disease withBartonella henselae andAfipia felis antigens. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1996, 3: 200–204.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Emmons RW, Riggs JL, Schachter J: Continuing search for the etiology of cat scratch disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1976, 4: 112–114.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Knobloch J, Bialek R, Müller G, Asmus P: Common surface epitope ofBartonella bacilliformis andChlamydia psittaci. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988, 39:427–433.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    La Scola B, Raoult D: Serological cross reactions betweenBartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae andCoxiella burnetii. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 2270–2274.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Jalava J, Kotilainen P, Nikkari S, Skurnik M, Vanttinen E, Lehtonen OP, Eerola E, Toivanen P: Use of the polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing for detection ofBartonella quintana in the aortic valve of a patient with culture-negative infective endocarditis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 891–896.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Anderson B, Sims K, Regnery R, Robinson L, Schmidt J, Goral C, Hager C, Adwards K: Detection ofRochalimaea henselae DNA in specimens from cat scratch disease patients by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32:942–948.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bergmans AMC, Groothedde JW, Schellekens JFP, Van Embden JDA, Ossewaarde JM, Schouls LM: Etiology of cat scratch disease: comparison of polymerase chain reaction detection ofBartonella (formerlyRochalimaea) andAfipia felis DNA with serology and skin tests. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995, 171: 916–923.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Regnery RL, Spruill CE, Plikaytis BD: Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. Journal of Bacteriology 1991, 173: 1576–1589.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Myers WF, Grossman DM, Wisseman CL Jr: Antibiotic susceptibility patterns inRochalimaea quintana, the agent of trench fever. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1984, 25: 690–693.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Maurin M, Gasquet S, Ducco C, Raoult D: MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14Bartonella (formerlyRochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 2387–2391.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Musso D, Drancourt M, Raoult D: Lack of bactericidal effect of antibiotics except aminoglycosides onBartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 36: 101–108.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Maurin M, Lepocher H, Mallet D, Raoult D: Antibiotics susceptibility ofAfipia felis in axenic medium and in cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993, 37: 1410–1413.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rudikoff D, Phelps RG, Gordon RE, Bottone EJ: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related bacillary vascular proliferation (epithelioid angiomatosis): rapid response to erythromycin therapy. Archives of Dermatology 1989, 125: 706–707.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lewis DE, Wallace MR: Treatment of adult systemic cat scratch disease with gentamicin sulfate. Western Journal of Medicine 1991, 154: 330–331.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rappaport DC, Cumming WA, Ros PR: Treatment of adult systemic cat scratch disease with gentamicin sulfate. Western Journal of Medicine 1991, 154: 330–331.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Collipp PJ: Cat-scratch disease: therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1992, 146: 397–399.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Holley HPJ: Successful treatment of cat scratch disease with ciprofloxacin (see comments). Journal of the American Medical Association 1991, 265: 1563–1565.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Bogue CW, Wise JD, Gray GF, Edwards KM: Antibiotic therapy for cat-scratch disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 1989, 262: 813–816.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MMV Medizin Verlag GmbH 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Maurin
    • 1
  • R. Birtles
    • 1
  • D. Raoult
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UPRESA 6020Université de la Méditerranée, Faculté de MédecineMarseille Cedex 5France

Personalised recommendations