Wind action and sand movement near Holkham Bay, North Norfolk Coast, England
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In Holkham Bay, North Norfolk Coast, England, a wide beach and coastal dunes have formed as a result of wave action and wind activity. This article describes the experiments and field observations that were carried out to explore the nature of wind activity that is presently affecting the morphology of the beach and dunes.
The experiments and field observations indicate: (1) Sand is blown off the beach surface very soon after it is exposed during the low tide if the wind velocity is above 3.0 m/sec. (2) Winds from the south, east, and west in Holkham Bay are offshore winds and do not exert much influence on dune formation in the area. (3) The dominant winds (those that exert most marked effect on the beach and dunes) are the northerly, northeasterly and the northwesterly winds. (4) The average annual accretion rate of sand by the wind on the beach is about 3,600 m3. (5) Knowing the annual accretion rate and the volume of aeolian dunes, it is possible to determine their relative ages.
KeywordsBeach Field Observation Wind Velocity Marked Effect Wave Action
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