Prevention of Gram negative noscomial bronchopneumonia by intratracheal colistin in critically ill patients
To evaluate the efficiency of intratracheal colistin in preventing nosocomial bronchopneumonia (BPN) in the critically ill.
Study evaluating the clinical incidence of nosocomial BPN in 2 groups of critically ill patients who receive or did not receive intratracheal colistin. BPN was assessed clinically in survivors and histologically in nonsurvivors.
A 14-bed surgical intensive care unit.
598 consecutive critically ill patients were studied during a prospective non-randomized study over a 40-month period.
251 patients — 31 non-survivors and 220 survivors — did not receive intratracheal colistin and 347 — 42 non-survivors and 305 survivors — received intratracheal colistin for a 2-week period (16000000 units per 24h).
Measurements and results
The incidence of nosocomial BPN was evaluated clinically in survivors, using repeated protected minibronchoalveolar lavages, and histologically in non-survivors via an immediate postmortem pneumonectomy (histologic and semi-quantitative bacteriologic analysis of one lung). The clinical incidence of nosocomial BPN was of 37% in coli (−) survivors and of 27% in coli (+) survivors (p<0.01). This result was histologically confirmed in non-survivors, where the incidence of histologic BPN was of 61% in coli (−) patients and of 36% in coli (+) patients (p<0.001). Emergence of BPN due to colistin-resistant micro-organisms was not observed. Because colistin was successful in preventing Gram-negative BPN and did not change the absolute number of Gram-positive BPN, the proportion of BPN caused bystaphylococcus species was higher in group coli (+) patients (33% vs 16%). Mortality was not significantly influenced by the administration of colistin.
This study suggests that the administration of intratracheal colistin during a 2-week period significantly reduces the incidence of Gram-negative BPN without creating an increasing number of BPN due to colistin-resistant micro-organism.
Key wordsNosocomial bronchopneumonia Mechanical ventilation Intratracheal colistin
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