Sequence information on the genome of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has only recently been determined. In contrast, very little is known about the viral proteins. In the present report we have identified the membrane glycoprotein (M) of PEDV by use of rabbit anti-peptide sera and transient expression of the cloned M gene in Vero cells and by expression in the baculovirus system. The native M protein of PEDV is incorporated into virions, is N-glycosylated, and migrates with a relative mobility (Mr) of 27 k in polyacrylamide gels. In contrast, the M protein synthesized by recombinant baculoviruses migrates with a Mr of 23 k, that is, with identical mobility as the deglycosylated product of PEDV. Thus, it appears that M protein specified by the recombinant baculovirus is poorly, if at all, glycosylated. Using monoclonal antibodies and rabbit antipeptide sera specific for the N and C termini of the M protein, we were able to show that a 19 k band detected in PEDV-infected cells but not in virions represented a fragment of M from which the C terminus had been cleaved off. Finally, by electron microscopy and immunogold labelling, the relative orientation of M within the virion envelope was determined as NexoCcyt. In conclusion, all of these data strongly support the hypothesis that PEDV should be classified with the group I coronaviruses.
coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea PEDV membrane protein