Methods to identify and reduce potential surface stream water losses into abandoned underground mines
Methods to identify and subsequently seal surface water loss zones in stream channels were tested by the United States Bureau of Mines at Staub Run, a first-order stream near Frostburg, Maryland, that partially overlies abandoned coal mine workings. Conventional stream gauging was conducted to establish discharge patterns before and after stream sealing. Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were performed within the stream channel to identify zones of increased relative water saturation to depths less than 15 m. Zones of increased conductivity were generally found to be associated with areas exhibiting statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) gauged flow losses. Conversely, zones that exhibited declining conductivity delineated areas where between-station flows were not significantly different. Using this information on potential loss zones, an experimental grouting procedure was applied by injecting an expandable polyurethane grout to a depth less than one meter into the alluvial streambed over a 180-m section of the stream channel. Before grouting, the study section exhibited a 24 I/sec flow loss; first-phase grouting reduced this to a 14 I/sec flow loss; with a second-phase grouting the losses were only 3 I/sec.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ash, S. H., and R. H. Whaite, 1953, Surface-water seepage into anthracite mines into the Wyoming Basin Northern Field: BuMines Bulletin 534, 30 p.Google Scholar
- Buchanan, T. J., and W. T. Somers, 1969, Discharge measurements at gauging stations: U.S. Geological Survey TWRI Book 3, Chapter A8, 65 p.Google Scholar
- Hobba, W. A., 1981, Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey RI-33, 72 p.Google Scholar
- Hollyday, E. F., and S. W. McKenzie, 1973, Hydrogeology of the formation and neutralization of acid waters draining from underground coal mines of western Maryland: Maryland Geological Survey, RI-No. 20, 50 p.Google Scholar
- McNeill, J. D., 1980, Electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurement at low induction numbers: Technical Note 6, Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
- O'Hara, C. C., 1900, The geology of Allegheny County: Baltimore, MD, Maryland Geological Survey, 159 p.Google Scholar
- Toenges, A. L., 1949, Investigation of lower coal beds in Georges Creek and northern part of upper Potomac Basins, Allegheny and Garrett countries, MD: BuMines Technical Paper 725, 100 p.Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1979, Dewatering active underground coal mines: technical aspects and cost-effectiveness: Washington, D.C., EPA-600/7-79-124, 123 p.Google Scholar
- Williams, R. E., G. V. Winter, G. L. Bloomsburg, and D. R. Ralston, 1986, Mine hydrology: Society of Mining Engineers Inc., 169 p.Google Scholar