Advertisement

Azole resistance inCandida

  • D. W. Denning
  • G. G. Baily
  • S. V. Hood
Review

Abstract

Resistance ofCandida to azoles is an increasing problem. Susceptibility testing ofCandida against fluconazole and ketoconazole is now feasible and desirable. Good correlation of resistance in vitro with clinical failure of fluconazole therapy has now been shown in mucosal candidiasis. The relationship, if any, between resistance and clinical failure in the context of invasive candidiasis is not clear at present and additional correlative work needs to be done. Monitoring of resistance trends inCandida is clearly important now.

Keywords

Internal Medicine Fluconazole Candidiasis Ketoconazole Susceptibility Testing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Working Party on Fungal Infection: Management of deepCandida infection in the surgical and intensive care unit patient. Intensive Care Medicine 1994, 20: 522–528.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rogers TE, Galgiani JN: Activity of fluconazole (UK 49,858) and ketoconazole againstCandida albicans in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1986, 30: 418–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisher MA, Shen SH, Haddad J, Tarry WF: Comparison of in vivo activity of fluconazole with that of amphotericin B againstCandida albicans, Candida glabrata andCandida krusei. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1989, 33: 1443–1446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Law D, Moore CB, Wardle HM, Ganguli LA, Keaney MG, Denning DW: High prevalence of antifungal resistance inCandida spp. from patients with AIDS. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1994, 34: 659–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnson EM, Davey KG, Szekely A, Warnock DW: Itraconazole susceptibilities of fluconazole susceptible and resistant isolates of fiveCandida species. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 36: 787–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rex JH, Pfaller MA, Barry AL, Nelson PW, Webb CD and the NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group: Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates from a randomized, multicentre trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B as treatment of non neutropenic patients with candidaemia. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 40–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scholer HJ, Polak A: Resistance to systemic antifungal agents. In: Bryan LE (ed): Antimicrobial drug resistance. Academic Press, Orlando, 1984, p. 393–460.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahearn DG, McGlohn MS: In vitro susceptibilities of sucrose negativeCandida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae, andCandida norvegensis to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole and ketoconazole. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1984, 19: 412–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Merz WG, Khazan U, Jabra-Rizk MA, Wu LC, Osterhout GJ, Lehmann PF: Strain delineation and epidemiology ofCandida (Clavispora) lusitaniae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30: 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosenblatt HM, Byrne W, Ament ME, Graybill J, Stiehm ER: Successful treatment of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with ketoconazole. Journal of Pediatrics 1980, 97: 657–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Horsburgh CR, Kirkpatrick CH: Long term therapy of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with ketoconazole: experience with 21 patients. American Journal of Medicine 1983, 74: 23–29.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Warnock DW, Johnson EM, Richardson MD, Vickers CFH: Modified response to ketoconazole ofCandida albicans from a treatment failure. Lancet 1983, ii: 642–643.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fox R, Neal KR, Leen CLS, Ellis ME, Mandal BK: Fluconazole resistantCandida in AIDS. Journal of Infection 1991, 22: 201–202.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willcocks L, Leen CLS, Brettle RP, Urquhart D, Russell TB, Milne LJR: Fluconazole resistance in AIDS patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1991, 28: 937–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kitchen VS, Savage M, Harris JRW:Candida albicans resistance in AIDS. Journal of Infection 1991, 22: 204–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith D, Boag F, Midgley J, Gazzard B: Fluconazole resistantCandida in AIDS. Journal of Infection 1991, 23: 345–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Odds FC: Resistance of yeasts to azole-derivative antifungals. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993, 31: 463–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ng TTC, Denning DW: Fluconazole resistance inCandida in patients with AIDS — a therapeutic approach. Journal of Infection 1993, 26: 117–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rex JH, Pfaller MA, Rinaldi MG, Polak A, Galgiani JN: Antifungal susceptibility testing. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1993, 6: 367–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ghannoum MA, Rex JH, Galgiani JN: Susceptibility testing of fungi: current status of correlation of in vitro data with clinical outcome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 489–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Denning DW, Stevens DA: Editorial. New drugs for systemic fungal infections. Greater choice and more difficult clinical decisions. British Medical Journal 1989, 99: 407–408.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Troke PF, Pye GW: Antifungal susceptibility testing. A manual of methods in development (FLU-92-010MM). Pfizer Central Research, Sandwich, UK, 1992.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Regli P, Blancard A, Goudard M, Moulin-Traffort J, Sarzier JM, Quilici M: Évaluation de la sensibilité in vitro au fluconazole de différentes espèces de levures rencontrées en pathologie. Pathologie Biologique 1992, 40: 500–506.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blancard A, Moulin-Traffort J, Regli P, Sarzier JM, Quilici M: Apport du laboratoire dans la surveillance du traitement antifongique par le fluconazole des candidoses chez les immunodeprimes. Pathologie Biologique 1991, 39: 534–538.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sandven P, Bjorneklett A, Maeland A and the Norwegian Yeast Study Group: Susceptibilities of NorwegianCandida albicans strains to fluconazole: emergence of resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993, 37: 2443–2448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ruhnke M, Eigler A, Engelmann E, Geiseler B, Trautmann M: Correlation between antifungal susceptibility testing ofCandida isolates from patients with HIV infection and clinical results after treatment with fluconazole. Infection 1994, 22: 132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Imbert-Bernard C, Valentin A, Reynes J, Mallie M, Bastide JM: Relationship between fluconazole sensitivity ofCandida albicans isolates from HIV positive patients and serotype adherence and CD4 lymphocyte count. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1994, 13: 711–716.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pfaller MA, Burmeister L, Bartlett MS, Rinaldi MG: Multicentre evaluation of four methods of yeast inoculum preparation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1988, 26: 1437–1441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pfaller MA, Rinaldi MG, Galgiani JN, Bartlett MS, Body BA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Fromtling RA, Hall GS, Hughes CE, Odds FC, Sugar AM: Collaborative investigation of variables in antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1990, 34: 1648–1654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Odds FC, Milne LJR, Gentles JC, Ball HE: The activity in vitro and in vivo of a new imidazole antifungal, ketoconazole. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1980, 6: 97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Calhoun DL, Roberts GD, Galgiani JN, Bennett JE, Feingold DS, Jorgensen J, Kobayashi GS, Shadomy S: Results of a survey of antifungal susceptibility tests in the United States and interlaboratory comparison of broth dilution testing of flucytosine and amphotericin B. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1986, 23: 298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Galgiani JN: Antifungal susceptibility tests. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987, 31: 1867–1870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pfaller MA, Dupont B, Kobayashi GS, Muller J, Rinaldi MG, Espinel-Ingroff A, Shadomy S, Troke PF, Walsh TJ, Warnock DW: Standardized susceptibility testing of fluconazole: an international collaborative study. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1992, 36: 1805–1809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shawar R, Paetznick V, Witte Z, Ensign LG, Anaissie E, LaRocco M: Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing ofCandida albicans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30: 1976–1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Espinel-Ingroff A, Kerkering TM, Goldson PR, Shadomy S: Comparison study of broth macrodilution and microdilution antifungal susceptibility tests. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991, 29: 1089–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Espinel-Ingroff A, Kish Jr CW, Kerkering TM, Fromtling RA, Bartizal KF, Bartlett MS, Body BA, Frey C, Hall G, Roberts GD, Nolte FB, Odds FC, Rinaldi MG, Sugar AM, Villareal K: Collaborative comparison of broth macrodilution and microdilution antifungal susceptibility tests. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30: 3138–3145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sewell DL, Pfaller MA, Barry AL: Comparison of broth macrodilution, broth microdilution, and E test antifungal susceptibility tests for fluconazole. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 2099–2102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Proposed Standard M27-P. NCCLS, Villanova, PA, 1992.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Tentative standard. NCCLS document M27-T. NCCLS, Villanova, PA, 1995.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anaissie E, Paetznick V, Bodey GP: Fluconazole susceptibility testing ofCandida albicans: microtiter method that is independent of inoculum size, temperature and time of reading. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1991, 35: 1641–1646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fan-Havard P, Capano D, Smith SM, Mangia A, Eng RHJ: Development of resistance inCandida isolates from patients receiving prolonged antifungal therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1991, 35: 2302–2305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pfaller MA, Buschelman B, Bale MJ, Lancaster M, Espinel-Ingroff A, Rex JH, Rinaldi MG: Multicenter comparison of colorimetric microdilution broth method with the reference macrodilution method for in vitro susceptibility testing of yeast isolates. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1994, 19: 9–13.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Martinez-Suarez JV: Improved medium for fluconazole susceptibility testing ofCandida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994, 38: 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chavanet P, Lopez J, Grappin M, Bonnin A, Duong M, Waldner A, Buisson M, Camerlynck P, Portier H: Cross-sectional study of the susceptibility ofCandida isolates to antifungal drugs and in vitro-in vivo correlation in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1994, 8: 945–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Quereda C, Polanco AM, Giner C, Sánchez-Sousa A, Pereira E, Navas E, Fortún J, Guerrero A, Baquero F: Correlation between in vitro resistance to fluconazole and clinical outcome of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1996, 15: 30–37.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ruhnke M, Eigler A, Tennagen I, Geiseler B, Engelmann E, Trautmann M: Emergence of fluconazole-resistant strains ofCandida albicans in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 2092–2098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johnson EM, Warnock DW, Luker J, Porter SR, Scully C: Emergence of azole drug resistance inCandida species from HIV-infected patients receiving prolonged fluconazole therapy for oral candidosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 35: 103–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Polanco AM, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Baquero F, Sanchez-Sousa A, Martinez-Suarez JV: Improved method of determining the susceptibility ofCandida albicans to fluconazole. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 35: 155–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fournier C, Gaspar A, Boillot F, Villard J: Evaluation of a broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility test with a pH indicator: comparison with the broth macrodilution procedure. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 35: 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cartledge JD, Midgley J, Gazzard BG: Relative growth measurement ofCandida species in a single concentration of fluconazole predicts the clinical response to fluconazole in HIV infected patients with oral candidosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996, 37: 275–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cameron ML, Schell WA, Bruch S, Bartlett JA, Waskin HA, Perfect JR: Correlation of in vitro fluconazole resistance ofCandida isolates in relation to therapy and symptoms of individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993, 37: 2449–2453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Espinel-Ingroff A: E test for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1994, 19: 217–220.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Columbo AL, Barchiesi F, McGough DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG: Evaluation of the E test system versus a microtitre broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts against fluconazole and itraconazole. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 36: 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Colombo AL, Barchiesi F, McGough DA, Rinaldi MG: Comparison of E test and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth macrodilution method for azole antifungal susceptibility testing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 36: 535–540.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schmalreck AF, Kottmann I, Reiser A, Ruffer U, Scharr E, Vanca E: An evaluation of seven methods of testing in vitro susceptibility of clinical yeast isolates to fluconazole. Mycoses 1995, 38: 359–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reynes J, Mallie M, Andre D, Janbon F, Bastide JM: Traitement et prophylaxie secondaire par fluconazole des candidoses oropharyngees des sujets VIH: analyse mycologique des échecs. Pathologie Biologie 1992, 40: 513–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hundt W, Hofman H: In vitro susceptibility and sterol biosynthesis ofCandida albicans strains after long term treatment with azoles in HIV-infected patients. Infection 1994, 22: 124–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Plempel M, Berg D, Buchel KH, Abbink D: Test method for antifungal agents; a critical review. Mykosen 1987, 30: 28–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Galgiani JN, Stevens DA: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of yeasts: a turbidimetric technique independent of inoculum size. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1976, 10: 721–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wardle HM, Law D, Moore CB, Mason CM, Denning DW: The in vitro activity of D0870 compared with other azoles against fluconazole resistantCandida spp. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 868–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pfaller MA, Bale MJ, Buschelman B, Rhomberg P: Antifungal activity of a new triazole, DO870, compared with four other antifungal agents tested against clinical isolates ofCandida andTorulopsis glabrata. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1994, 19: 75–80.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Radetsky M, Wheeler RC, Roe MH, Todd JK: Microtiter broth dilution method for yeast susceptibility testing with validation by clinical outcome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1986, 24: 600–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hacek DM, Noskin GA, Trakas K, Peterson LR: Initial use of a broth microdilution method suitable for in vitro testing of fungal isolates in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 337: 1884–1889.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tellier R, Krajden M, Grigoriew GA, Campbell I: Innovative endpoint determination system of antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1992, 36: 1619–1625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Troillet N, Durussel C, Bille J, Glauser MP, Chave JP: Correlation between in vitro susceptibility ofCandida albicans and fluconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1993, 12: 911–915.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wanger A, Mills K, Nelson PW, Rex JH: Comparison of E test and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth macrodilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing: enhanced ability to detect amphotericin B-resistantCandida isolates. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 2520–2522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Johnson EM, Richardson MD, Warnock DW: In vitro resistance to imidazole antifungals inCandida albicans. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1984, 13: 547–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oh K, Matsuoka H, Sumita O, Takatori K, Kurata H: Evaluation of antifungal activity of antimycotics by automatic analyzing system. Mycopathologica 1992, 118: 71–81.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dieu JY, Parapanissios A, Halkias D, Friedman H: A rapid [3H]glucose incorporation assay for determination of lymphoid-cell mediated inhibition ofCandida albicans growth. Journal of Immunological Methods 1986, 92: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hughes CE, Bennett RL, Tuna IC, Beggs WH: Activities of fluconazole UK 49858 and ketoconazole against ketoconazole-susceptible and-resistantCandida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1988, 32: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Odds FC: Interactions among amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, ketoconazole, and miconazole against pathogenic fungi in vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1982, 22: 763–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Odds FC, Abbott AB: Relative inhibition factors — a novel approach to the assessment of antifungal antibiotics in vivo. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1984, 13: 31–43.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Green L, Petersen B, Steimel L, Haeber P, Current W: Rapid determination of antifungal activity by flow cytometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 1088–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fromtling RA, Galgiani JN, Pfaller MA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Bartizal KF, Bartlett MS, Body BA, Frey C, Hall G, Roberts GD, Nolte FB, Odds FC, Rinaldi MG, Sugar AM, Villareal K: Multicenter evaluation of a broth macrodilution antifungal susceptibility test for yeasts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993, 37: 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Law D, Moore CB, Joseph LA, Keaney MGL, Denning DW: High incidence of antifungal drug resistance inCandida tropicalis. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 1996, 7: 241–245.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Martinez-Suarez JV, Dronda F, Laguna F, Chaves F, Valencia E: Correlation of in vitro susceptibility test results with clinical response: a study of azole therapy in AIDS patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 35: 793–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baily GG, Perry FM, Denning DW, Mandal BK: Fluconazole resistant candidosis in an HIV cohort. AIDS 1994, 8: 787–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maenza JR, Keruly JC, Moore RD, Chaisson RE, Merz MG, Gallant JE: Risk factors for fluconazole-resistant candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996, 173: 219–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sanglard D, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J: Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents inCandida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 2378–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barchiesi F, Colombo AL, McGough DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG: In vitro activity of itraconazole against fluconazole-susceptible and-resistantCandida albicans isolates from oral cavities of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994, 38: 1530–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Valentin A, Le Guennec R, Rodriguez E, Reynes J, Mallie M, Bastide JM: Comparative resistance ofCandida albicans clinical isolates to fluconazole and itraconazole in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1996, 40: 1342–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Casals JB: Tablet sensitivity testing of pathogenic fungi. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1979, 32: 719–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: Working Party Report. Antifungal drug susceptibility testing. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1995, 36: 899–909.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lynch ME, Sobel JD: Comparative in vitro activity of antimycotic agents against pathogenic vaginal yeast isolates. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 1994, 32: 267–274.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pfaller MA, Grant C, Morthland V, Rhine-Chalberg J: Comparative evaluation of alternative methods for broth dilution susceptibility testing of fluconazole againstCandida albicans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 506–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anaissie EJ, Karyotakis NC, Hachem R, Dignani MC, Rex JH, Paetznick V: Correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity of antifungal agents againstCandida species. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994, 170: 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pfaller MA, Bale MJ, Buschelman B, Lancaster M, Espinel-Ingroff A, Rex JH, Rinaldi MG, Cooper CR, McGinnis MR: Quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended broth macrodilution testing for amphotericin B, fluconazole and flucytosine. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 1104–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Newman SL, Flanigan TP, Fisher A, Rinaldi MG, Stein M, Vigilante K: Clinically significant mucosal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole treatment in patients with AIDS. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1994, 19: 684–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pfaller MA, Rhine-Chalberg J, Redding SW, Smith J, Farinacci G, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG: Variations in fluconazole susceptibility and electrophoretic karyotype among oral isolates ofCandida albicans from patients with AIDS and oral candidiasis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994, 32: 59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sangeorzan JA, Bradley SF, He X, Zarins LT, Ridenour GL, Tiballi RN, Kauffman CA: Epidemiology of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: Colonization, infection, treatment and emergence of fluconazole resistance. American Journal of Medicine 1994, 97: 339–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    He X, Tiballi RN, Zarins LT, Bradley SF, Sangeorzan JA, Kauffman CA: Azole resistance in oropharyngealCandida albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994, 38: 2495–2497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barchiesi F, Hollis RJ, McGough DA, Scalise G, Rinaldi MG, Pfaller MA: DNA subtypes and fluconazole susceptibilities ofCandida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of patients with AIDS. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 20: 634–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bart-Delabesse E, Boiron P, Carlotti A, Dupont B:Candida albicans genotyping in studies with patients with AIDS developing resistance to fluconazole. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1993, 31: 2933–2937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dupont B: Resistance trends in oralCandida infections: the clinical challenge. Clinician 1993, 11: 19–22.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nguyen MH, Peacock JE, Morris AJ, Tanner DC, Nguyen ML, Snydman DR, Wagener MM, Rinaldi MG, Yu VL: The changing face of candidemia: emergence of non-Candida albicans species and antifungal resistance. American Journal of Medicine 1996, 100: 617–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Voss A, Meis JFGM, Hoogkamp-Korstanje JAA: Fluconazole in the management of fungal urinary tract infections. Infection 1994, 22: 247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pallares R, Liñares J, Vadillo M, Cabellos C. Manresa F, Viladrich PF, Martin R, Gudiol F: Resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin and mortality from severe pneumococcal pneumonia in Barcelona, Spain. New England Journal of Medicine 1995, 333: 474–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nelson MR, Fisher M, Cartledge J, Rogers T, Gazzard BG: The role of azoles in the treatment and prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease in HIV infection. AIDS 1994, 8: 651–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Odds FC: Resistance of clinically important yeasts to antifungal agents. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 1996, 6: 145–147.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rex JH, Pfaller MA, Galgiani JN, Bartlett MS, Espinel-Ingroff A, Ghannoum MA, Lancaster M, Odds FC, Rinaldi MG, Walsh TJ, Barry AL: Development of interpretative breakpoints for antifungal susceptibility testing: conceptual framework and analysis of in vitro-in vivo correlation data for fluconazole, itraconazole, andCandida infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997, 24: 235–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vanden Bossche H, Marichal P, Odds FC: Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in fungi. Trends in Microbiology 1994, 2: 393–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Parkinson T, Falconer DJ, Hitchcock CA: Fluconazole resistance due to energy-dependent drug efflux inCandida glabrata. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1995, 39: 1696–1699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Venkateswarlu K, Denning DW, Manning NJ, Kelly SL: Resistance to fluconazole inCandida albicans from AIDS patients correlated with reduced intracellular accumulation of drug. FEMS Microbiology Letters 1995, 131: 337–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Prasad R, de Wergifosse P, Goffeau A, Balzi E: Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene ofCandida albicans, CDR1, conferring multiple resistance to drugs and antifungals. Current Genetics 1995, 27: 320–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ben-Yaacov R, Knoller S, Caldwell GA, Becker JM, Koltin Y:Candida albicans gene encoding resistance to benomyl and methotrexate is a multidrug resistance gene. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994, 38: 648–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Marichal R Gorrens J, Coene MC, Le Jeune L, Vanden Bossche H: Origin of differences in susceptibility ofCandida krusei to azole antifungal agents. Mycoses 1995, 38: 111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Venkateswarlu K, Denning DW, Kelly SL: Inhibition and interaction of sterol 14a-demethylase ofCandida krusei with azole antifungal drugs. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 1997, 35: 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Venkateswarlu K, Denning DW, Manning NJ, Kelly SL: Comparison of D0870, a new triazole antifungal agent, to fluconazole for inhibition ofCandida albicans cytochrome P-450 by using in vitro assays. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1996, 40: 1382–1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kelly SL, Kelly DE: Molecular studies on azole sensitivity in fungi. In: Maresca B, Kobayashi GS, Yamaguchi H (ed): Molecular biology and its application to medical mycology. Springer Verlag, Berlin 1993, p. 199–213.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kelly SL, Lamb DC, Corran AJ, Baldwin BC, Kelly DE: Mode of action and resistance to azole antifungals associated with the formation of 14a-methylergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3ß,6a-diol. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1995, 207: 910–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kelly SL, Lamb DC, Kelly DE, Loeffler J, Einsele H: Resistance to fluconazole and amphotericin inCandida albicans from AIDS patients. Lancet 1996, 348: 1523–1524.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vanden Bossche H, Marichal P, Odds FC, Le Jeune L, Coene MC: Characterization of an azole-resistantCandida glabrata isolate. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1992, 36: 2602–2610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Warnock DW, Burke J, Cope NJ, Johnson EM, von Fraunhofer NA, Williams EW: Fluconazole resistance inCandida glabrata. Lancet 1988, ii: 1310.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Joseph-Home T, Holloman D, Loeffler RST, Kelly SL: Altered P450 activity associated with direct selection for fungal azole resistance. FEBS Letters 1995, 374: 174–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Selik RM, Starcher T, Curran JW: Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: Frequencies, associations, and trends. AIDS 1987, 1: 175–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fisher-Hoch SP, Hutwagner L: Opportunistic candidiasis: an epidemic of the 1980s. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Beck-Sague CM, Jarvis WR, National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System: Secular trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in the United States, 1980–1990. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993, 167: 1247–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Fraser VJ, Jones M, Dunkel J, Storfer S, Medoff G, Cunagan WC: Candidemia in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology, risk factors, and predictors of mortality. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1992, 15: 414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Komshian SV, Uwaydah AK, Sobel JD, Crane LR: Fungemia caused byCandida species andTorulopsis glabrata in the hospitalized patient: frequency, characteristics and evaluation of factors including outcome. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1989, 11: 379–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Price MF, LaRocco MT, Gentry LO: Fluconazole susceptibilities ofCandida species and distribution of species recovered from blood cultures over a 5 year period. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994, 38: 1422–1424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Galgiani JN: Susceptibility ofCandida albicans and other yeasts to fluconazole: Relation between in vitro and in vivo studies. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1990, 12, Supplement 1: 272–275.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Boken DJ, Swindells S, Rinaldi MG: Fluconazole-resistantCandida albicans. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1993, 17: 1018–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Plettenburg A, Stoehr A, Hoffken G: Fluconazole therapy of oral candidiasis in HIV infected patients: results of a multicentre study. Infection 1994, 22: 118–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Redding S, Smith J, Faranacci G, Rinaldi M, Fothergill A, Rhine-Chalberg J, Pfaller M: Resistance ofCandida albicans to fluconazole during treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in a patient with AIDS: documentation by in vitro susceptibility testing and DNA subtype analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1994, 18: 240–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Boerlin P, Boerlin-Petzold F, Goudet J, Durussel C, Pagani JL, Chave JP, Bille J: TypingCandida albicans oral isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996, 34: 1235–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lischewski A, Ruhnke M, Tennagen I, Schonian G, Morschhauser J, Hacker J: Molecular epidemiology ofCandida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance patterns profiles. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33: 769–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Espinel-Ingroff A, Quart A, Steele-Moore L, Metchera I, Buck GA, Bruzzese BL, Reich D: Molecular karyotyping of multiple yeast species isolated from nine patients with AIDS during prolonged fluconazole therapy. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 1996, 34: 111–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    McCullough MJ, Ross BC, Dwyer BD, Reader PC: Genotype and phenotype of oralCandida albicans from patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Microbiology 1993, 140: 1195–1202.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Powderly WG, Robinson K, Keath EJ: Molecular epidemiology of recurrent oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: evidence for two patterns of recurrence. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993, 168: 463–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Goff DA, Koletar SL, Buesching WG, Barnishan J, Fass RJ: Isolation of fluconazole-resistantCandida albicans from human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients never treated with azoles. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 20: 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Berenguer J, Fernandez-Baca V, Sanchez R, Bouza E: In vitro activity of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole against yeasts causing bloodstream infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1995, 14: 363–365.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Heald AE, Cox GM, Schell WA, Bartlett JA, Perfect JR: Oropharyngeal yeast flora and fluconazole resistance in HIV infected patients receiving long-term continuous versus intermittent fluconazole therapy. AIDS 1996, 10: 263–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Dronda F, Alonso-Sanz M, Laguna F, Chaves F, Martinez-Suarez JV, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Gonzalez-Lopez A, Valencia E: Mixed oropharyngeal candidiasis due toCandida albicans and non-albicans strains in HlV-infected patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1996, 15: 446–452.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tom W, Aaron JS: Oesophageal ulcers caused byTorulopsis glabrata in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1987, 82: 766–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Just-Nubling G, Gentschew, B, Dohle M, Bottinger C, Helm EB, Stille W: Fluconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidosis in HIV positive patients. Mycoses 1990, 33: 435–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Spinillo A, Michelone G, Cavanna C, Colonna L, Capuzzo E, Nicola S: Clinical and microbiological characteristics of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV seropositive women. Genitourinary Medicine 1994, 70: 268–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Baily GG, Moore CB, De Wit S, Denning DW:Candida inconspicua, another fluconazole resistantCandida species in HIV patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997, in press.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hood SV, Moore CB, Denning DW: The isolation ofCandida norvegensis from clinical specimens: four case reports. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996, 23: 1185–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Reynes J, Mallie M, Azay J, Janbon F, Bastide JM, Bertrand A: Echecs cliniques du fluconazole dans la prophylaxie a long terme des candidoses oesophagiennes chez des patients ayant une immunodepression sévère liée au VIH. Bulletin of the French Society of Medical Mycology 1990, 19: 155–157.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wingard JR, Merz WG, Rinaldi MG, Johnson TR, Karp JE, Saral R: Increase inCandida krusei infection among patients with bone marrow transplantation and neutropenia treated prophylactically with fluconazole. New England Journal of Medicine 1991, 325: 1274–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Guttierrez F: An analysis of the trends in the use of antifungal drugs and fungal isolates in a UK university hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection 1995, 31: 149–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Coste T, Barale T, Reboux G, Talon D, Cahn JY: Prophylaxie antifongique par fluconazole: son influence sur l'augmentation de la fréquence d'isolement deCandida glabrata. Bulletin of the French Society for Medical Mycology 1990, 19: 151–154.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kunovà A, Trupl J, Dluholucký S, Galovà G, Krčméry V: Use of fluconazole is not associated with a higher incidence ofCandida krusei and othernon-albicans Candida species. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 226–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    de Pauw BE, Raemaekers JMM, Donnelly JP, Kullberg BJ, Meis JFGM: An open study on the safety and efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of disseminatedCandida infections in patients treated for hematological malignancy. Annals of Hematology 1995, 70: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, Pappas PG, van der Horst CM, Edwards JE, Washburn RG, Scheld WM, Karchmer AW, Dine AP, Levenstein MJ, Webb CD, for the Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group: A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. New England Journal of Medicine 1994, 331: 1325–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Nguyen MH, Peacock JE, Tanner DC, Morris AJ, Nguyen ML, Snydman DR, Wagener MM, Yu VL: Therapeutic approaches in patients with candidemia. Evaluation of a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995, 155: 2429–2435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    British Society for Medical Mycology Subcommittee on Diagnostic Mycology: Management of genital candidiasis. British Medical Journal 1995, 310: 1241–1244.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sobel JD, Vazquez JA: Symptomatic vulvovaginitis due to fluconazole-resistantCandida albicans in a female who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996, 22: 726–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Leen CLS, Dunbar EM, Ellis ME, Mandal BK: Once weekly fluconazole to prevent recurrence of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS related complex: a double blind placebo controlled study. Journal of Infection 1990, 21: 55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vuffray A, Durussel C, Boerlin C, Boerlin-Petzold F, Bille J, Glauser MP, Chave JP: Oropharyngeal candidiasis resistant to single-dose therapy with fluconazole in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1994, 8: 708–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Working Party: Antifungal chemotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1992, 340: 648–651.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cartledge JD, Midgley J, Youle M, Gazzard BG: Itraconazole cyclodextrin solution — effective treatment for HIV related candidosis unresponsive to other azole therapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1994, 33: 1071–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dewsnup DH, Stevens DA: Efficacy of oral amphotericin B in AIDS patients with thrush clinically resistant to fluconazole. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 1994, 32: 389–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Galgiani JN, Lewis ML: In vitro studies of the antifungal triazoles SCH 56592 and itraconazole againstCandida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and other pathogenic yeasts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1997, 41: 180–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wardle H, Law D, Denning DW: In vitro activity of pradimicin against fluconazole resistantCandida spp. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1996, 40: 2229–2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Barone JA, Koh JG, Bierman RH, Colaizzi JL, Swanson KA, Gaffar MC, Moskobitz BL, Mechlinkski W, Van de Velde V: Food interaction and steady state pharmacokinetics of itraconazole capsules in healthy male volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993, 37: 778–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Blum RA, D'Andrea DT, Florentino BM, Wilton JH, Hilligross DM, Gardner MJ, Henry EB, Goldstein H, Schentag JJ: Increased gastric pH and the bioavailability of fluconazole and ketoconazole. Annals of Internal Medicine 1991, 114: 755–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Tucker RM, Hanson LH, Denning DW, Rinaldi M, Graybill JR, Sharkey PK, Stevens DA: Interaction of azoles with rifampin, phenytoin, and carbemazepine: in vitro and clinical observations. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1992, 14: 165–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Graninger W, Presteril E, Schneeweiss B, Teleky B, Georgopoulos A: Treatment ofCandida albicans fungaemia with fluconazole. Journal of Infection 1993, 26: 133–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lecciones JA, Lee JW, Navarro EE, Witebsky FG, Marshall D, Steinberg SM, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ: Vascular catheter-associated fungemia in patients with cancer: Analysis of 155 episodes. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1992, 14: 875–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, Pappas PG, Serody J, Edwards JE, Washburn RG, for the NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group: Intravascular catheter exchange and duration of candidemia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1995, 21: 994–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    White A, Goetz MB: Azole-resistantCandida albicans. Report of two cases of resistance to fluconazole and review. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1994, 19: 687–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Weese-Mayer DE, Wheeler Fondriest D, Brouillette RT, Shulman ST: Risk factors associated with candidemia in the neonatal intensive care unit: a case-control study. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 1987, 6: 190–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Denning
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • G. G. Baily
    • 1
    • 4
  • S. V. Hood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Monsall UnitNorth Manchester General HospitalManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of MedicineHope HospitalSalfordUK
  3. 3.University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  4. 4.Department of Genitourinary MedicineSt. Bartholomew's HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations