Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Levels of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachloroazobenzene in propanil herbicide

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bordeleau LM, Rosen JD, Bartha R (1972) Herbicide-derived chloroazobenzene residues: Pathway of formulation. J Agr Food Chem 20:573–578.

  2. Bunce NJ, Corke CT, Merrick RL, Bright JH (1979) 3,3′, 4,4′-Tetra-chloroazobenzene as a contaminant in commercial propanil. Chemosphere 5:283–284.

  3. Chiska H, Kearney PC (1970) Metabolism of propanil in soils. J Agr Food Chem 18:854

  4. Dimuccio A, Camoni I, Dommarco R (1984) 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloro-azobenzene and 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloroazoxybenzene in technical grade herbicides, propanil, diuron, linuron and neburon. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 8:511–515.

  5. Hill RH, Rollen ZJ, Grace DF, Needham LL (1981) Tetrachloroazobenzene in 3,4-dichloroaniline and its herbicidal derivatives: Propanil, diuron, linuron and neburon. Arch Environ Hlth 36:11–14.

  6. Hsia MTS, Kreamer BL (1985) Delayed wasting syndrome and alternatives of liver gluconeogenic enzymes in rats exposed to the TCDD congener 3,3′4,4′-tetrachloroazoxybenzene. Toxicol Lett 25:247–258.

  7. Hughes AF, Corke CT (1974) Formulation of tetrachloroazobenzene in some Canadian soils treated with propanil and 3,4-dichloro-aniline. Canad J Microbiol 20:35–39.

  8. Poland A, Glover E, Kende AS, DeCamp M (1976) 3,4,3′4′-Tetrachloroazoxybenzene and azobenzene: Potent inducers of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylas. Science (Washington, DC) 194:627–630.

  9. Singh J, Bingley R (1990) Levels of 3,3′4,4′-Tetrachloroazobenzene in diuron and linuron herbicide formulations. J Assn Off Anal Chem 73:749–51.

  10. Taylor JS, Wuthrich RC, Lloyd KM, Poland A (1977) Chloracne from manufacture of a new herbicide. Arch Dormatol 113:616–619.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Joginder Singh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Singh, J., Bingley, R. Levels of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachloroazobenzene in propanil herbicide. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 47, 822–826 (1991).

Download citation


  • Waste Water
  • Water Management
  • Water Pollution
  • Propanil
  • Propanil Herbicide