A commercial-grade nickel containing small amounts of carbon, manganese, and silicon was exposed to air for periods up to 288 hr at 1050°C to study the effect of oxidation on the formation of oxides of these impurity elements. Exposure of nickel to air led to decarburization. The maximum amount of decarburization occurred during the initial period of air exposure and the loss in carbon was more in the metal with a smaller section size. Decarburization in the metal produced voids in the oxide scale due to the formation of CO2 gas. It has been shown further that CO and/or CO2 gas bubbles, which form in high purity nickel on grain boundaries during exposure to air at elevated temperatures, cannot exist in commercial-grade nickel where manganese is present as an impurity. Instead, oxides of manganese form in the grain boundaries as well as in the matrix. This is because manganese oxide is more stable than CO or CO2 gas.
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Pandey, M.C. Decarburization and internal oxidation in a commercial-grade nickel. Oxid Met 48, 129–141 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01675265