Communications in Mathematical Physics

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 301–306 | Cite as

The conservation of matter in general relativity

  • Stephen Hawking


It is shown that in classical general relativity, if space-time is nonempty at one time, it will be nonempty at all times provided that the energy momentum tensor of the matter satisfies a physically reasonable condition. The apparent contradiction with the quantum predictions for the creation and annihilation of matter particles by gravitons is discussed and is shown to arise from the lack of a good energy momentum operator for the matter in an unquantised curved space-time metric.


Neural Network Statistical Physic General Relativity Complex System Nonlinear Dynamics 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Hawking
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Theoretical AstronomyCambridgeEngland
  2. 2.Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland

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