The surgical anatomy of the rectum — a review with particular relevance to the hazards of rectal mobilisation
The middle rectal artery does not run in the lateral ligaments of the rectum, but below them, on levator ani. It reaches the rectum by penetrating Denonvilliers' fascia.
The lateral ligaments may contain an accessory middle rectal artery in 25% of cases.
The pelvic autonomic nerves are buried in endopelvic fascia on the pelvic side wall, but come to lie close to the anterior aspect of the rectum at the level of the prostate or upper vagina.
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