Certain misleading appearances are peculiar to pediatric uroradiology. The most frequently encountered pitfalls are related to the bladder, to vesicoureteral reflux, and to the duplicated collecting system. The bi-chambered nature of the child's bladder, and the rapid settling of contrast material to the most dependent portion causes many pitfalls in diagnosis. When the child is prone, normal ureters may seem to be ectopic, and ureteroceles may become invisible. When the child is supine, the volume of urine in the bladder may be grossly under-estimated. Reflux can mimic function at urography. The dynamic nature of reflux leads to under-estimation of its presence and degree on the IVP and static cystogram. Reflux into an already dilated system can lead to over-estimation of its degree. Aberrant micturition with rapid refilling of the bladder can simulate incomplete emptying. The diagnosis of “ectopic ureterocele” is based on indirect evidence. Any condition that affects the urinary apparatus in the same way will have a similar appearance. A huge ureterocele may have a small ureter, and massive reflux into a lower pole ureter may make the diagnosis of duplication difficult. Ureterocele “lookalikes”, and effacement or intussusception of the ureterocele are cystographic pitfalls. Lower pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction and Wilms tumor in the lower portion of a kidney can have surprisingly similar appearances.
Key wordsPediatric uroradiology Misleading appearances Bladder Vesicoureteral reflux Aberrant micturition Duplex collecting system Ectopic ureterocele
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