Advertisement

Infection

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 203–211 | Cite as

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV): A review

  • M. van der Graaf
  • R. J. A. Diepersloot
Review

Summary

The literature on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV) is reviewed. HIV spreads by vertical transmission and by iatrogenic transmission (transfer of blood or blood-containing products), by infected needles among i.v. drug users and, more rarely, among health care workers, but mainly by sexual contact. In Western countries the virus is mainly spread by passive anal intercourse among homosexuals and seldom by heterosexual intercourse. In African countries, however, the virus is mainly spread by heterosexual intercourse, probably because of other, concurring sexually transmitted diseases. Some preventive measures are discussed.

Keywords

Health Care Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infectious Disease General Practice Western Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Übertragung des menschlichen Immundefizienz-Virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV): Eine Übersicht

Zusammenfassung

Die Literatur zur Übertragung des menschlichen Immundefizienz-Virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV) wird in einer Übersicht zusammengefaßt. Die Ausbreitung von HIV erfolgt durch vertikale und iatrogene Übertragung (Transfusion von Blut oder Blutprodukten), bei Drogensüchtigen durch infizierte Nadeln; seltener breitet sich HIV auf Pflegepersonal aus; der Hauptausbreitungsweg erfolgt jedoch durch sexuellen Kontakt. In westlichen Ländern wird das Virus vorwiegend unter Homosexuellen durch passiven analen Verkehr verbreitet, seltener durch heterosexuellen Geschlechtsverkehr, während dies der Hauptausbreitungsweg in afrikanischen Ländern ist. Möglicherweise spielen andere, gleichzeitig bestehende Geschlechtskrankheiten dabei eine begünstigende Rolle. Einige Präventivmaßnahmen werden diskutiert.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. 1.
    Robertson, J. R., Bucknall, A. B. V., Welsbey, P. D., Roberts, J. J. K., Inglis, J. M., Peutherer, J. F., Brettl, R. P. Epidemic of AIDS related virus (HTLV-III/LAV) infection among intravenous drug abusers. Br. Med. J. 292 (1986) 527–529.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Black, J. L., Dolan, M. P., DeFord, H. A., Rubenstein, J. A., Penk, W. E., Robinowitz, R., Skinner, J. R. Sharing of needles among users of intravenous drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 446–447.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen, H., Marmor, M., Des Jarlais, D. C.: Behavioral risk factors for HTLV-III/LAV seropositivity among intravenous drug abusers. The International Conference on the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Abstracts, American College of Physicians 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weiss, S. H., Ginzburg, H. M., Goedert, J. J.: Risk for HTLV-III exposure and AIDS among parenteral drug abusers in New Jersey. The International Conference on the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Abstracts, American College of Physicians 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ginzberg, H. M., Weiss, S. H., MacDonald, M. G., Hubbard, R. L. HTLV-III exposure among drug users. Cancer Res. 45 (Suppl.) (1985) 4605–4608.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andreyev, H. J. M. Selling syringes to drug addicts. Lancet II (1985) 1192–1193.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Des Jarlais, D. C., Friedman, S. R., Hopkins, W. Risk reduction for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among i.v. drug users. Ann. Intern. Med. 103 (1985) 755–759.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ball, S. E., Hows, J. M., Wersley, A. M., Luzatto, L. Seroconversion of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III) in patients with haemophilia: a longitudinal study. Br. Med. J. 290 (1985) 1705.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moffat, E. H., Bloom, A. L., Mortimer, P. P. HTLV-III antibody status and immunological abnormalities in haemophiliac patients. Lancet I (1985) 935.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gjerset, G. F., McCracky, G., Counts, R. B., Martin, P. J., Jason, J., Kennedy, S., Evatt, B., Hansen, J. A. Lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibodies and T-cells in hemophiliacs treated with cryoprecipitate or concentrate. Blood 66 (1985) 718–720.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ludlam, C. A., Steel, C. M., Cheingsong-Popov, G. D., McClelland, D. B. L., Prescott, R. J., Tucker, J., Tedder, R. S., Weiss, R. A., Philp, I. Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection in seronegative haemophiliacs after transfusion of factor VIII. Lancet II (1985) 233–236.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Melbye, M., Madhok, R., Sarin, P. S., Lowe, G. D., Goedert, J. J., Froebel, K. S., Biggar, R. J., Stenbjerg, S., Forbes, C. D., Gallo, R. C., Ebbesen, P. HTLV-III seropositivity in European haemophiliacs exposed to factor VIII concentrate imported from the USA. Lancet II (1984) 1444–1446.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones, P. J., Hamilton, P. J., Bird, G., Fearns, M., Oxley, A., Tedder, R., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Codd, A. AIDS and haemophilia: morbidity and mortality in a well defined population. Br. Med. J. 291 (1985) 695–699.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Felding, P., Nilsson, J. M., Hansson, B. G., Biberfeld, G. Absence of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III in haemophiliacs treated with heat treated factor VIII concentrate of American origin. Lancet II (1985) 832–833.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biberfeld, G., Bottiger, B., Karlson, A., Sandström, E., Morfeldt-Manssin, L., Blomback, M., Nilsson, I., Wiechel, B., Saxinger, L., Gallo, R. C. HTLV-III infection in homosexuals and hemophiliacs in Sweden. Cancer Res. (Suppl.) 45 (1985) 4609–4611.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carr, R., Veitch, S. E., Edmond, E., Prescot, R. Y., Peutherer, J. F., Steel, C. M., Ludlam, C. A. Abnormalities of circulating lymphocyte subsets in haemophiliacs in an AIDS free population. Lancet I (1984) 1431–1434.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, C. A., Bofill, M., Janossy, G., Thomas, H. C., Rizza, C. R., Kernoff, P. B. A. Relationships between blood product exposure and immunological abnormalities in English haemophiliacs. Br. J. Haemotol. 60 (1985) 161.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ragni, M. V., Tegtmeyer, G. E., Levy, J. A., Kaminsky, L. S., Lewis, J. H., Spero, J. A., Bontempo, F. A., Handwerk-Leber, C., Bayer, W. L., Zimmerman, D. H., Britz, J. A. AIDS retrovirus antibodies in hemophiliacs treated with factor VIII or factor IX concentrates, cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma: prevalence, seroconversion rate and clinical correlations. Blood 67 (1986) 592–595.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goedert, J. J., Sarngadharan, M. G., Eyster, M. E., Weiss, S. H., Bodmer, A. J., Gallo, R. C., Blattner, W. A. Antibodies reactive with human T-cell leukemia viruses in the serum of haemophiliacs receiving factor VIII concentrate. Blood 65 (1985) 492.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rouzioux, C., Chamaret, S., Montagnier, L., Carnelli, V., Rolland, G., Mannucci, P. M. Absence of antibodies to AIDS virus in haemophiliacs treated with heat treated factor VIII concentrates. Lancet II (1985) 271–272.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mosseler, J., Schimpf, K., Auerswald, G., Bayer, H., Sneider, J., Hunsmann, G. Inability of pasteurised factor VIII preparations to induce antibodies to HTLV-III after long term treatment. Lancet I (1985) 1111.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    White, G. C., Matthews, T. J., Weinhold, K. Y., Haynes, B. F., LeRoy Cromartie, H., McMillan, C. W., Bolognesi, D. P. HTLV-III seroconversion associated with heat-treated factor VIII concentrate. Lancet I (1986) 611–612.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van den Berg, W., Ten Cate, J. W., Breederveld, C., Goudsmit, J. Seroconversion to HTLV-III in haemophiliac given heat-treated factor VIII concentrate. Lancet I (1986) 803–804.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Centers for Disease Control Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 593–598.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peterman, Th. A., Jaffe, H. W., Feorino, P. M., Getchell, J. P., Warfield, D. T., Haverkos, H. W., Stoneburner, R. L., Curran, J. W. Transfusion associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 2913–2917.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bennett, J. A. AIDS: epidemiology update. Am. J. Nurs. Sept. 85 (1985) 968–972.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Esteban, J. L., Tai, C. C., Kay, J. W. D., Shih, J. W. K., Bodmer, A. J., Alter, H. J. Importance of Western blot analysis in predicting infectivity of anti-HTLV-III/LAV positive blood. Lancet II (1985) 1083–1086.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scheiermann, N., Gesemann, M., Riffelmann, H. D. Nachweis von anti-HTLV-III Antikörpern in Gamma-Globulinpräparaten zur intramuskulären Injektion. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 110 (1985) 1912–1913.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Centers for Disease Control Isolation of HTLV-III/LAV from samples of serum protein given to cancer patients — Bahamas. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 1139.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barré-Sinoussi, F., Nugèyre, M. T., Girard, M., Tron, F., Chermann, J. C. Laboratory and serological studies argue against possible transmission in health workers by hepatitis B vaccination. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 1064–1066.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dienstag, J. L., Werner, B. G., McLane, M. T., Snydman, D. R., Grady, G. F., Craven, D. E., Crumpacker, C. S., Polk, B. F., Platt, R., Allan, J., Essex, M. Absence of antibodies to HTLV-III in health care workers after hepatitis B vaccination. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 1064–1066.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L'Age-Stehr, J., Schwarz, A., Offermann, G., Langmaack, H., Bennhold, I., Niedrig, M., Koch, M. A. HTLV-III infection in kidney transplant recipients. Lancet II (1985) 1361–1362.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prompt, C. A., Reis, M., Grillo, F. M., Kopstein, J., Kraemer, E., Manfro, R. C., Maia, M. H., Comiran, J. B. Transmission of AIDS virus at renal transplantation. Lancet II (1985) 672.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Neumayer, H. H., Wagner, K., Kresse, S. HTLV-III antibodies in patients with kidney transplants or on haemodialysis. Lancet I (1986) 497.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fujikawa, L. S., Salahuddin, S. Z., Palestine, A. G., Nussenblatt, R. B., Masur, H., Gallo, R. C. Isolation of human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) from tears of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Lancet II (1985) 528–530.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Salahuddin, S. Z., Palestine, A. G., Heck, E., Ablashi, D., Luckenbach, M., McCulley, J. P., Nussenblatt, R. B. Isolation of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III from the cornea. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101 (1986) 149–152.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stewart, G. J., Cunningham, A. L., Driscoll, G. J., Tyler, J. P. P., Barr, J. A., Gold, J., Lamont, B. J. Transmission of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) by artificial insemination by donor. Lancet II (1985) 581–584.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stricof, R. L., Morse, D. L. HTLV-III/LAV seroconversion following a deep intramuscular needlestick injury. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 1115.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anonymous Needlestick transmission of HTLV-III from a patient infected in Africa. Lancet II (1984) 1376–1377.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weiss, S. H., Saxinger, W. C., Rechtman, D. HTLV-III infection among health care workers. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 2089–2093.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Centers for Disease Control Summary: Recommendations for preventing transmission of infection with HTLV-III/LAV in the workplace. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 3023–3026.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Centers for Disease Control Apparent transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus from a child to a mother providing health care. MMWR 35 (1986) 76–79.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Werner, B. G., Grady, G. F. Accidental hepatitis B-surface-antigen-positive inoculations. Use of e-antigen to estimate infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 97 (1982) 367–369.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Friedland, G. H., Saltzman, B. R., Rogers, M. F., Kahl, P. A., Lesser, M. L., Mayers, M. M., Klein, R. S. Lack of transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 344–349.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lawrence, D. N., Jason, J. M., Bouhasin, J. D., McDougal, J. S., Kuntse, A. P., Evatt, B. L., Joist, J. H. HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients. Blood 66 (1985) 703–705.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kaplan, J. E., Oleske, J. M., Getchell, J. P., Kalyanaraman, V. S., Minnefor, A. B., Zarbaia-Ablan, M., Joski, V., Denny, Th., Cabradilla, C. D., Rogers, M. F., Sarnadharan, M. G., Sliski, A., Gallo, R. C., Francis, D. P. Evidence against transmission of human T lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in families of children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Infec. Dis. 4 (1985) 468–471.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goedert, J. J., Biggar, R. A., Winn, D. H., Mann, D. L., Byar, D. P., Strong, D. M., Digioia, R. A., Grossman, R. J., Sanchez, W. C., Kase, R. G., Greene, M. H., Hoover, R. N., Blattner, W. A. Decreased helper T lymphocytes in homosexual men. II. Sexual practices. Am. J. Epidemiol. 121 (1985) 637–644.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mayer, K. H., Ayotte, D., Groopman, J. E., Stoddard, A. M., Sarngadharan, M., Gallo, R. C. Association of human T lymphotropic virus antibodies with sexual and other behaviors in a cohort of homosexual men from Boston with and without generalized lymphadenopathy. Am. J. Med. 80 (1986) 357–363.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Van Griensven, G. J. P., Tielman, R. A. P., Goudsmit, J., Van der Noordaa, J., De Wolf, F., Coutinho, R. A. Risicofaktoren en prevalentie van LAV/HTLV III antistoffen bij homoseksuele mannen in Nederland. T. Soc. Gezondheidsz. 64 (1986) 100–107.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lyman, D., Winkelstein, W., Ascher, M., Levy, J. A. Minimal risk of transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus infection by oral-genital contact. J. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 1703.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schechter, M. T., Boyko, W. J., Douglas, W. J., Maynard, M., Willoughy, B., McLeod, A., Craib, K. J. Can HTLV-III be transmitted orally? Lancet I (1986) 379.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Centers for Disease Control Heterosexual transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus. MMWR 34 (1985) 17.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Acheson, E. D. AIDS: a challenge for the public health. Lancet I (1986) 662–666.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Redfield, R. R., Markham, P. D. Saluhuddin, S. Z., Wright, C., Samgadharan, M. G., Gallo R. C. Heterosexually acquired HTLV/LAV disease (AIDS-related complex and AIDS): Epidemiologic evidence for female to male transmission. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 2094–2096.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Redfield, R. R., Wright, D. C., Markham, P. D., Salahuddin, S. Z., Sarngadharan, S. Z., Gallo, R. C. Female-to-male transmission of HTLV-III. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 1705–1706.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Calabrese, L. H., Gopalakrishan, K. V. Transmission of HTLV-III infection from man to woman to man. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 987.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Monteiro, E., Wilson, J., Konghorn, G. R. The natural history of HTLV-III infection. Br. Med. J. 292 (1986) 341–342.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Piot, P., Quinn, T. C., Taelman, H., Feinsod, F. M., Minlangu, K. B., Wohin, O., Ndangi, K., Stevens, W., Kalambayi, K., Mitchell, S., Bridts, C., McCormick, J. B. AIDS in an heterosexual population in Zaïre. Lancet II (1984) 65–69.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Biggar, R. J., Gigase, P. L., Melbye, M., Kestens, L., Sarin, P. S., Bodmer, A. J., Demedts, P., Stevens, W. J., Palulu, L., Delacollette, C., Blattner, W. A. ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet II (1985) 520–523.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Biggar, R. J. The AIDS problem in Africa. Lancet I (1986) 79–82.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saxinger, C., Levine, P. H., Lange-Wantrin, G., Gallo, R. C. Unique pattern of HTLV-III (AIDS-related) antigen recognition by sera from African children in Uganda (1972). Cancer Res. (Suppl.) 45 (1985) 4624–4626.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rodriquez, L., Dewhurst, S., Sinangil, F., Merino, F., Godoy, G., Volsky, D. J. Antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV among aboriginal Amazonian Indians in Venezuela. Lancet II (1985) 1098.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Volsky, D. J., Wu, Y. T., Stevenson, M., Dewhurst, S., Sinangil, F. Antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV in Venezuelan patients with acute malarial infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 647–648.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barin, F., M'Boup, S., Denis, F., Kanki, P., Allan, J. S., Lee, T. H., Essex, M. Serological evidence for virus related to Simian T-lymphotropic retrovirus III in residents of West Africa. Lancet II (1985) 1387–1389.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Des Jarlais, D. C., Feldman, D., Wish, E., Friedman, S. R., Brady, E., Cuadrado, M.: Heterosexual HTLV-III/LAV transmission and „safer“ sexual practices in Rwanda and New York City. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Clumeck, N., Van de Perre, P., Carael, M., Rowroy, D., Nzaramba, D. Heterosexual promiscuity among African patients with AIDS. N. Engl. J. Med. 313 (1985) 182.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Van de Perre, P., Kanyamupira, J. B., Carael, M., Bogaerts, J., Akingeneye, E., De Mol, P., Sibomana, J., Le Pollain, B., Nzabimana, E., Kayhigi, J., Clumeck, N.: HTLV-III/LAV infection in Central Africa. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pape, J. W., Liautaud, B., Thomas, F., Mathurin, J., Amand, M. A. St., Boncy, M., Pean, V., Pamphile, M., Laroche, C., Dehorte, J., Johnson, W. D. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Haiti. Ann. Intern. Med. 103 (1985) 674–678.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kreiss, J. K., Koech, D., Plummer, F. A., Holmes, K. K., Lightfoote, M., Piot, P., Ronald, A. R., Ndinya-Achola, J. O., Lourdes, C. B., D'Costa, C. B., Roberts, P., Ngugi, E. N., Quinn, T. C. AIDS virus infection in Nairobi prostitutes. N. Engl. J. Med. 314 (1986) 414–418.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Carael, M., Van de Perre, P., Akingeneye, E., Kanyamupira, J. B., Butzler, J. P., Clumeck, N.: Sociocultural factors in relation to HTLV-III/LAV transmission in urban areas in Central Africa. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Serwadda, D., Mugerwa, R. D., Sewankambo, N. K., Lwegaba, A., Carswell, J. W., Kirwa, G. B., Bayley, A. C., Downing, R. G., Tedder, R. S., Clayden, S. A., Weiss, R. A., Dalgleishi, A. G. Slim disease: a new disease in Uganda and its association with HTLV-III infection. Lancet II (1985) 849–832.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Williams, C. K. O. AIDS and cancer in Nigerians. Lancet I (1985) 36–37.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zuckerman, A. J. AIDS and insects. Br. Med. J. 292 (1986) 1094–1095.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Park, W. P., Scott, G. B. Pediatric AIDS: A disease spectrum causally associated with HTLV-III infection. Cancer Res. 45 (Suppl.) (1985) 4659–4661.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schäfer, A., Jovaisas, E., Stauber, M., Lowerthal, D., Koch, M. A. Nachweis einer diaplazentaren Übertragung von HTLV-III/LAV vor der 20. Schwangerschaftswoche. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 46 (1986) 88–89.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chiodo, F., Ricchi, E., Costigliol, P., Michelacci, L., Bovicelli, L., Dallacasa, P. Vertical transmission of HTLV-III. Lancet I (1986) 739.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lapointe, M., Michaud, J., Petrovic, D., Chausreau, J. P., Dupuy, J. M. Transplacental transmission of HTLV-III virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 312 (1985) 1325–1326.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ziegler, J. B., Cooper, D. A., Johnson, R. V., Gold, J. Postnatal transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus from mother to infant. Lancet I (1985) 896.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Salahuddin, S. Z., Markham, P. D., Redfield, R. R., Essex, M., Groopman, J. E., Sarngadharan, M. G., McLane, M. F., Sliski, A., Gallo, R. C. HTLV-III in symptom-free seronegative persons. Lancet II (1984) 1418–1420.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Levy, J. A., Mitra, G., Mozen, M. M. Recovery and inactivation of infectious retroviruses from factor VIII concentrate. Lancet I (1985) 271–272.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schechter, M. T., Jeffries, E., Constance, P. Changes in sexual behavior and fear of AIDS. Lancet I (1984) 1293.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jaffe, H. W., Hardy, A. M., Morgan, M. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men. Ann. Intern. Med. 103 (1985) 662–664.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Conant, M., Hardy, D., Sernatinger, J., Spicer, D., Levy, J. A. Condoms prevent transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 1706.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Katznelson, S., Drewe, W. L., Mintz, L. Efficacy of the condom as a barrier to the transmission of cytomegalovirus. J. Infect. Dis. 150 (1984) 155–157.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kubanek, B., Koerner, K. Hüfigkeit von HTLV-III-Antikörpern bei Blutspendern des Deutschen Roten Kreuzes. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 111 (1986) 516–517.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Collier, A. C., Barnes, R. C., Handsfield, H. H. Prevalence of antibody to LAV/HTLV-III among homosexual men in Seattle. Am. J. Public Health 76 (1986) 564–565.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jesson, W. J., Thorp, R. W., Mortimer, P. P., Oates, J. K. Prevalence of anti-HTLV-III in UK risk groups 1984/85. Lancet I (1986) 155.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gerstoft, J., Lindhardt, B. O., Petersen, C. S., Kroon, S., Ullman, S., Moller, S., Nielsen, J. O., Dickmeiss, E. Antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III on promiscuous healthy homosexual men. Relation to immunological and clinical findings. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 15 (1985) 290–295.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sirianni, M. C., Rossi, P., Moroni, M., Romagnani, S., Lazzarin, A., Carbonari, M., Scarpati, B., Mariani, M., Manconi, P. E., Del Giacco, G. S., Aiuti, F. Demonstration of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III in lymphadenopathy syndrome patients and in individuals at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Italy. Am. J. Epidemiol. 123 (1986) 308–315.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Centers for Disease Control Prevalence of HTLV-III/LAV antibody in heterosexual populations — United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 185.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lindhardt, B. O., Gerstoft, J., Ulrich, K., Bentzen, K., Scheibel, E., Nielsen, J. D., Dickmeiss, E. Antibodies against HTLV-III in Danish haemophiliacs: relation to source of factor VIII used in treatment and immunological parameters. Scand. J. Haematol. 35 (1985) 379–385.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zoulek, G., Gürtler, L., Eberle, J., Lorbeer, B., Deinhardt, F. Zunahme der Prävalenz von Antikörpern gegen LAV/HTLV-III bei Drogenabhängigen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 111 (1986) 567–570.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Redfield, R. R., Markham, P. D., Salahuddin, S. Z., Sarngadharan, M. G., Bodner, A. J., Folks, T. M., Ballou, W. R., Wright, C., Gallo, R. C. Frequent transmission of HTLV-III among spouses of patients with AIDS-related complex and AIDS. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 253 (1985) 1571–1573.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kreiss, J. K., Kitchen, L. W., Prince, H. E., Kasper, C. K., Essex, M. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in wives of hemophiliacs. Ann. Intern. Med. 102 (1985) 623–626.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jones, P., Hamilton, P. J., Bird, G., Fearns, M., Oxley, A., Tedder, R., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Codd, A. AIDS and haemophilia: morbidity and mortality in a well-defined population. Br. Med. J. 291 (1985) 695–699.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Luzi, G., Ensoli, B., Turbesi, G., Scarpati, B., Aiuti, F. Transmission of HTLV-III infection by heterosexual contact. Lancet II (1985) 1018.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jason, J. M., McDougal, J. S., Dixon, G., Lawrence, D. N., Kennedy, M. S., Hilgartner, M., Aledert, L., Evat, B. HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255 (1986) 212–215.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Barton, S. E., Underhilt, G. S., Gilchrist, C., Jeffries, D. J., Harris, J. R. W. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet II (1985) 1424.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brenky-Faudeux, D., Fribourg-Blanc, A. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet II (1985) 1424.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tirelli, U., Vaccher, E., Carbone, A., De Paoli, P., Santini, G. F., Monfardini, S. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet II (1985) 1424.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Coutinho, R. A., Van der Helm, T. Geen aanwijzingen voor LAV/HTLV-III onder prostituees in Amsterdam die geen drugs gebruiken. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 130 (1986) 508.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Papaevangelou, G., Roumeliotou-Karayannis, A., Kallinkos, G., Papoutsakis, G. LAV/HTLV-III infection in female prostitutes. Lancet II (1985) 1018.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Buchanan, D. J., Downing, R. G., Tedder, R. S. HTLV-III antibody in Zambian copperbelt. Lancet I (1986) 155.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bayley, A. C., Downing, R. G., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Tedder, R. S., Daglfish, A. G., Weiss, R. A. HTLV-III serology distinguishes atypical and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma in Africa. Lancet II (1985) 359–361.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Okpara, R. A., Williams, E., Schnedier, J., Wendler, I., Hunsman, G. Antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus types I and III in blood donors from Calabar, Nigeria. Ann. Intern. Med. 104 (1986) 132.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Brun-Vezinet, F.: Seroepidemiological studies of LAV in Central Africa. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Georges, A., Lesbordes, J. L., Meunier, D. M. Y., Vohito, M. D., Gonzales, J. P., Guetard, D., Chamaret, S., Bensimon, G., Klatzman, D., Montagnier, L. Antibodies to LAV in various population groups of the Central African Republic. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Virol. 136 E (1986) 323–325.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Van de Perre, P., Clumeck, N., Carael, M., Nzabikimana, E., Robert-Guroff, M., De Mol, P., Fregens, P., Butler, J., Gallo, R. C., Kanyamupira, J. Female prostitutes: a risk group for infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus III. Lancet II (1985) 524–527.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Donea-Debroise, B., Sondag-Thuli, D.: Distribution of some virus markers among Rwandese blood donors. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    De-The, G., Gessain, A., Gazzolo, L., Robert-Guroff, M., Najberg, G., Calender, A., Peti, M., Brubaker, G., Bensliman, A., Fabry, F., Robin, Y., Fortune, R. Comparative seroepidemiology of HTLV-I and HTLV-III in the French West Indies and some African countries. Cancer Res. (Suppl.) 45 (1985) 4633–4636.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sher, R.: Sero epidemiological studies of HTLV-III/LAV infections in Southern African countries. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zagury, D., Lurhuma, K., Gallo, R. C.: HTLV-III/LAV infection in Central Africa. “AIDS in Africa”, Congress, 22–23 November 1985, Bruxelles, Belgium.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Clumeck, N. Robert-Guroff, M., Van de Perre, P., Jenning, A., Sibomana, J., Dernol, P., Cran, S., Gallo, R. C. Seroepidemiological studies of HTLV-III antibody prevalence among selected groups of heterosexual Africans. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 254 (1985) 2599–2602.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Carswell, J. W., Sewankambo, N., Lloyd, G., Downing, R. G. How long has the AIDS virus been in Uganda? Lancet II (1986) 1217.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MMV Medizin Verlag GmbH München 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. van der Graaf
    • 1
  • R. J. A. Diepersloot
    • 2
  1. 1.Amsterdam
  2. 2.Department of VirologyUniversity Hospital DijkzigtRotterdam

Personalised recommendations