Advertisement

Infection

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 148–152 | Cite as

Treatment and prevention of pertussis by antimicrobial agents (Part II)

  • J. E. Hoppe
  • A. Haug
Review

Summary

Suitable antimicrobials given during the catarrhal stage of whooping cough can attenuate the course of the disease. The efficacy of antibiotics administered prophylactically during the incubation period remains controversial but appears to be beneficial. Currently, erythromycin given for two weeks is the antibiotic of choice for pertussis. No treatment failures were observed with erythromycin estolate. Erythromycin ethylsuccinate and stearate must be given at high dosages (50–60 mg/kg/day) in order to achieve sufficient concentrations in the respiratory secretions. With ampicillin and amoxicillin treatment failures have been observed. The role of josamycin and co-trimoxazole in pertussis remains open.

Keywords

Ampicillin Incubation Period Erythromycin Antimicrobial Agent Treatment Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Behandlung und Verhütung des Keuchhustens mittels Antibiotika

Zusammenfassung

Geeignete Antibiotika können den Verlauf des Keuchhustens abschwächen, wenn sie während des Stadium catarrhale gegeben werden. Die Wirksamkeit einer prophylaktischen Antibiotikum-Gabe während der Inkubationszeit bleibt umstritten, scheint jedoch von Nutzen zu sein. Derzeit ist Erythromycin, für zwei Wochen gegeben, das Antibiotikum der Wahl. Bei Gabe von Erythromycin-Estolat sind keine Therapieversager beobachtet worden. Erythromycin-Äthylsuccinat und -Stearat müssen hoch dosiert werden (50–60 mg/kg/Tag), um ausreichende Konzentrationen in den Atemwegssekreten zu erzielen. Bei Gabe von Ampicillin und Amoxicillin sind Therapieversager beobachtet worden. Die Rolle von Josamycin und Co-trimoxazol beim Keuchhusten ist noch nicht geklärt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. 1.
    Lambert, H. Antimicrobial drugs in the treatment and prevention of pertussis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 5 (1979) 329–331.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nelson, J. D. Antibiotic treatment of pertussis. Pediatrics 44 (1969) 474–476.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoppe, J. E., Haug, A.: Antimicrobial susceptibility ofBordetella pertussis. Infection, in press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Field, L. H., Parker, C. D. Antibiotic susceptibility testing ofBordetella pertussis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 74 (1980) 312–316.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith, B. R., Le Frock, J. L. Bronchial tree penetration of antibiotics. Chest 83 (1983) 904–908.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trollfors, B. Whooping cough-aspects of pathogenesis and treatment. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) Suppl. 407 (1984) 33–39.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bass, J. W. Pertussis: current status of prevention and treatment. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4 (1985) 614–619.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kwantes, W., Joynson, D. H. M., Williams, W. O. Bordetella pertussis isolation in general practice: 1977–1979 whooping cough epidemic in West Glamorgan. J. Hyg. (Camb.) 90 (1983) 149–158.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Medical Research Council Treatment of whooping cough with antibiotics. Lancet I (1953) 1109–1112.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adcock, K. J., Reddy, S., Okubadejo, O. A., Montefiore, D. Trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in pertussis: comparison with tetracycline. Arch. Dis. Child. 47 (1972) 311–313.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bass, J. W., Klenk, E. L., Kotheimer, J. B., Linnemann, C. C., Smith, M. H. D. Antimicrobial treatment of pertussis. J. Pediatr. 75 (1969) 768–781.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strangert, K. Comparison between the effect of chloramphenicol and ampicillin in whooping cough. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1 (1969) 67–70.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bass, J. W. Erythromycin for treatment and prevention of pertussis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5 (1986) 154–157.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Islur, J., Anglin, C. S., Middleton, P. J. The whooping cough syndrome: a continuing pediatric problem. Clin. Pediatr. 14 (1975) 171–176.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Henry, R. L., Dorman, D. C., Skinner, J. A., Mellis, C. M. Antimicrobial therapy in whooping cough. Med. J. Aust. 2 (1981) 27–28.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trollfors, B. Effect of erythromycin and amoxycillin onBordetella pertussis in the nasopharynx. Infection 6 (1978) 228–230.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baraff, L. J., Wilkins, J., Wehrle, P. F. The role of antibiotics, immunizations, and adenoviruses in pertussis. Pediatrics 61 (1978) 224–230.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bergquist, S. O., Bernander, S., Dahnsjö, H., Sundelöf, B. Erythromycin in the treatment of pertussis: a study of bacteriologic and clinical effects. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 6 (1987) 458–461.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Henry, R. L., Dorman, D. C., Skinner, J. A., Mellis, C. M. Limitations of erythromycin in whooping cough. Med. J. Aust. 2 (1981) 108–109.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCracken, G. H., Ginsburg, C. M., Clahsen, J. C., Thomas, M. L. Pharmacologic evaluation of orally administered antibiotics in infants and children: effect of feeding on bioavailability. Pediatrics 62 (1975) 738–743.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eriksson, M., Bolme, P., Blennow, M. Absorption of erythromycin from pediatric suspension in infants and children. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 13 (1981) 211–215.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Halsey, N. A., Welling, M. A., Lehman, R. M. Nosocomial pertussis: a failure of erythromycin treatment and prophylaxis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 134 (1980) 521–522.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ginsburg, C. M. Pharmacology of erythromycin in infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5 (1986) 124–129.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dette, G. A. Vergleich der Gewebegängigkeit von Erythromycin. Infection 7 (1979) 129–145.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eichenwald, H. F. Adverse reactions to erythromycin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5 (1986) 147–150.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Broomhall, J., Herxheimer, A. Treatment of whooping cough: the facts. Arch. Dis. Child. 59 (1984) 185–187.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Altemeier, W. A., Ayoub, E. M. Erythromycin prophylaxis for pertussis. Pediatrics 59 (1977) 623–625.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Linnemann, C. C., Ramundo, N., Perlstein, P. H., Minton, S. D., Englender, G. S., McCormick, J. B., Hayes, P. S. Use of pertussis vaccine in an epidemic involving hospital staff. Lancet II (1975) 540–543.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grob, P. R. Prophylactic erythromycin for whooping cough contacts. Lancet I (1981) 772.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spencely, M., Lambert, H. P. Prophylactic erythromycin for whooping cough contacts. Lancet I (1981) 772–773.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Torre, D., Maggiolo, F., Sampietro, C. Comparative clinical study of josamycin and erythromycin in pertussis. Chemioterapia 3 (1984) 255–257.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schreinert, B. Josamycin — ein neues Makrolid-Antibiotikum. Klinische Erfahrungen in der Pädiatrie. Extracta Medica Practica 6, Suppl. 1 (1985) 59–62.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waßmer, B., Riedl-Seifert, R. Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Infekte bei älteren Kindern: ein Vergleich zwischen Josamycin und Erythromycin. Sozialpädiatrie 9 (1987) 89–90.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cascio, G., Titone, L., Portelli, V., Castello, G. Josamycin bei Streptokokkeninfektionen und Pertussis. Extracta Paediatrica 8, Suppl. 1 (1984) 47–52.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simon, C., Bontemps, M., Wiese, K., Schewior-Roland, R. Zur Ampicillin-Therapie des Keuchhustens. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 94 (1969) 2435–2437.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Feigin, R. D. Pertussis (whooping cough). In:Nelson, W. E., Behrman, R. E., Vaughan, V. C. (eds.): Textbook of pediatrics. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia 1983, pp. 658–661.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hughes, D. T. D., Bye, A., Hodder, P. Levels of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in blood and sputum in relation to treatment of chest infections. In:Hejzlar, M., Semonsky, M., Masak, S. (eds.): Advances in antimicrobial and antineoplastic chemotherapy I/2. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München 1972, pp. 1105–1106.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cullen, A. S., Cullen, H. B. Whooping cough: prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole. Lancet I (1978) 556.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Arneil, G. C., McAllister, T. A. Whooping cough in infants: antimicrobial prophylaxis? Lancet II (1977) 33–34.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arneil, G. C., McAllister, T. A. Prevention of whooping cough by antibiotics. Practitioner 219 (1977) 855–858.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rabo, E. Drug prophylaxis in pertussis. Lancet II (1977) 707–708.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nakazawa, S., Sato, H., Niino, K., Nakazawa, S. I., Suzuki, H., Iwasaki, A., Chikaoka, H., Hirama, Y., Narita, A. Treatment of pertussis with cefoperazone. Jap. J. Antibiot. 33 (1980) 865–870.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Motohiro, T., Sakata, Y., Fujimoto, T., Nishiyama, T., Nakajima, T., Ishimoto, K., Tominaga, K., Yamashita, F., Shishido, H., Watanabe, K., Matsumoto, K., Tazaki, K., Oki, S., Araki, H., Takajo, N., Yuasa, K., Tanaka, Y., Tsugawa, S., Nagayama, K., Komatsu, R., Yamamoto, M., Ookita, R., Sakaguchi, Y., Terasawa, K., Kinoshita, M. Treatment of whooping cough and whooping cough syndrome by cefoperazone. Jap. J. Antibiot. 33 (1980) 1183–1193.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Minamitani, M., Hachimori, K., Nakazawa, S., Sato, H., Narita, A., Hirama, Y., Nakazawa, S. I., Chikaoka, H., Motohiro, T., Nishiyama, T., Fujimoto, T., Ishimoto, K., Tominaga, K., Yamashita, F., Matsuo, H., Koga, Y., Eto, Y., Matsuyuki, M., Yuasa, T., Tanaka, Y., Nagayama, K., Shimada, Y., Aramaki, S., Takajo, N., Araki, H., Kowano, Y. Clinical results of latamoxef on pertussis. Jap. J. Antibiot. 36 (1983) 233–240.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aufrant, C., Lambert-Zechovsky, N., Aujard, Y., Bingen, E., Blum, C., Beaufils, F., Mathieu, H. Le céfotaxime dans les infections à bacille Gram négatif de l'enfant. Nouv. Presse Méd. 10 (1981) 639–646.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Garnier, J. M., Giraud, F. Utilisation du céfotaxime dans les maladies infectieuses de l'enfant. Nouv. Presse Méd. 10 (1981) 629–633.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MMV Medizin Verlag GmbH 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Hoppe
    • 1
  • A. Haug
    • 1
  1. 1.University Children's HospitalTübingen

Personalised recommendations