Heavy metal concentrations of duck tissues in relation to ingestion of spent shot

  • Shelly L. Hall
  • Frank M. FisherJr.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson WL (1975) Lead poisoning in waterfowl at Rice Lake, Illinois. J Wildl Manage 39:264–270.Google Scholar
  2. Bellrose FC Jr (1959) Lead poisoning as a mortality factor in waterfowl populations. Illinois Nat Hist Surv Bull 27:235–288.Google Scholar
  3. Calle PP, Kowalczyk DF, Dein FJ, Hartman FE (1982) Effect of hunters' switch from lead to steel shot on potential for oral lead poisoning in ducks. JAVMA 181:1299–1301.Google Scholar
  4. Cheney MA, Hacker CS, Schroder GD (1981) Bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in the Louisana heron (Hydranassa tricolor) and the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). Ecotoxicol Environm Safety 5:211–224.Google Scholar
  5. Dahlquist RL, Knoll JW (1978) Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analysis of biological materials and soils for major trace and ultra-trace elements. Appl Spectrosc 32:1–30.Google Scholar
  6. EPA (1979) Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectrometric method for trace element analysis of water and wastes. Federal Register 44:69559–69563.Google Scholar
  7. Hulse M, Mahoney JS, Schroder GD, Hacker CS, Pier SM (1980) Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret,Bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull,Larus atricilla. Arch Environm Contam Toxicol 9:65–78.Google Scholar
  8. Kortright FH (1967) Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  9. Longcore JR, Locke LN, Bagley GE, Andrews R (1974) Significance of lead residues in mallard tissues. US Fish Wildl Serv Spec Sci Rep-Wildl 182.Google Scholar
  10. Maedgen JL, Hacker CS, Schroder GD, Weir, FW (1983) Bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in the royal tern and sandwich tern. Arch Environm Contam Toxicol 11:99–102.Google Scholar
  11. Reid M, Hacker CS (1982) Spatial and temporal variation in lead and cadmium in the laughing gull,Larus atricilla. Mar Pollution Bull 11:387–389.Google Scholar
  12. Scanlon PF, Stotts VD, Oderwald RG, Dietrick TJ, Kendall RJ (1980) Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland USA waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 25:855–860.Google Scholar
  13. Sittig M (1972) Toxic Metals, Pollution Control and Worker Protection. Noyes Data Corp, Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  14. Stendell RC, Smith RI, Burnham KO, Christensen RE (1979) Exposure of waterfowl to lead: a nationwide survey of residues in wing bones of seven species, 1972–1973. US Fish Wildl Serv Spec Sci Rep-Wildl 223.Google Scholar
  15. Texas Parks and Wildlife (1983) Lead poisoning in waterfowl: a resource issue. Spec Rep-Wildl Div 7000–82, 19 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Tucker A (1972) The Toxic Metals. London Earth Island, LTD, London.Google Scholar
  17. Underwood EJ (1979) Interactions of trace elements. In: Oehme FW (ed) Toxicity of Heavy Metals in the Environment. Marcel Dekker, Inc, NY, p 641.Google Scholar
  18. White DH, Stendell RC (1977) Waterfowl exposure to lead and steel shot in selected hunting areas. J Wildl Manage 41:469–475.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shelly L. Hall
    • 1
  • Frank M. FisherJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyRice UniversityHouston

Personalised recommendations