Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 191–223 | Cite as

Geography of the nose: A morphometric study

  • Leslie G. Farkas
  • John C. Kolar
  • Ian R. Munro


The noses of 34 attractive young North American Caucasian women were analyzed quantitatively, based on 19 nasal measurements (6 single and 7 paired linear measurements, 3 angles, and 3 inclinations) and 15 craniofacial measurements (10 linear measurements and 5 inclinations) taken directly from the face of the women. The relationship between the nasal measurements was studied in 16 proportion indices and the relationship between the nasal and the other craniofacial measurements in 13 interareal indices. The findings were also compared with those in 21 women with below-average faces. Two types of facial harmony disruption were identified:disharmony, a normal index with a visually apparent failure of proportionality, anddisproportion, an index value outside of the normal range. The percentage of disharmonies and disproportions was significantly higher in the group of 21 women with below-average faces. The study revealed a wide variety of “ideal” noses. Only a small portion of the measurements (12%) and proportion indices (7%) were at the mean value. At least two-thirds of the interareal proportion indices were located in the mean ±1 standard deviation portion of the normal range. Only about one-fifth of the interareal indices were disharmonious and 2.8% disproportionate. The disproportions were more areal in the attractive faces and more interareal in the below-average faces. The greatest disproportion in the attractive face was the moderately short columella in relation to the tip protrusion and in the below-average face the long nasal bridge related to the upper-lip height. Disproportions were associated with combinations of normal and abnormal measurements, or with two normal measurements of unequal quality, which resulted in a slightly smaller disfigurement. Analysis of ethnic and racial differences showed the soft nose as the main feature of the most characteristic differences. The study revealed that the key to restoration of facial harmony is the renewal of the uniformity of proportion index qualities by elimination disharmonies and/or disproportionate relationships.

Key words

Nose in attractive face Anthropometry Nasal proportions Ethnic-racial differences 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie G. Farkas
    • 1
  • John C. Kolar
    • 1
  • Ian R. Munro
    • 1
  1. 1.Facial Measurement LaboratoryThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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