Advertisement

Current Microbiology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 277–281 | Cite as

Toxicity of volatile fatty acids at rumen pH prevents enrichment ofEscherichia coli by sorbitol in rumen contents

  • R. John Wallace
  • Margaret L. Falconer
  • Padma K. Bhargava
Article

Abstract

Attempts were made to establishEscherichia coli ML308 in the sheep rumen by inoculating it in combination with the slowly metabolized sugar alcohol, sorbitol. Numbers were determined by plating dilutions on nutrient agar containing the chromogenic β-galactoside, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactoside. This strain, alac-constitutive mutant, produced distinctive blue colonies.E. coli ML308 failed to grow in rumen fluid, despite being able to grow rapidly on sorbitol and in rumen fluid at pH 7.0. Its growth rate was depressed by relatively small drops in pH in the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFA), such that normal pH's of 6.2–6.6 in rumen contents were inhibitory. The indigenous remen bacterium,Streptococcus bovis, was much more resistant to the combination of high VFA concentrations and low pH. The success of this and similar strategies for the introduction of new organisms with beneficial new properties will, therefore, depend on the organism's having a tolerance to VFA over a range of rumen pH that enables them to survive in the same way as native species.

Keywords

Sugar Toxicity Agar Sorbitol Native Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Brownlie LE, Grau FH (1967) Effect of food intake on growth and survival of Salmonellas andEscherichia coli in the bovine rumen. J Gen Microbiol 46:125–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flint HJ, Duncan SH, Stewart CS (1987) Antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmids of ruminal strains ofBacteroides ruminicola andBacteroides multiacidus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 26:450–455Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harrison DG, McAllan AB (1980) Factors affecting microbial growth yields in the reticulo-rumen. In: Ruckebusch Y, Thivend P (eds) Digestive physiology and metabolism in ruminants. Lancaster: MTP Press, pp 205–226Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hollowell CA, Wolin MJ (1965) Basis of the exclusion ofEscherichia coli from the rumen ecosystem. Appl Microbiol 13:918–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kell DB, Peck MW, Rodger G, Morris JG (1981) On the permeability to weak acids and bases of the cytoplasmic membrane ofClostridium pasteurianum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 99:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robertson JD (1986) The energetics of end product excretion from a rumen bacterium,Selenomonas ruminantium. Ph.D. thesis, University of AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Russell JB (1987) Effect of extracellular pH on growth and proton motive force ofBacteroides succinogenes, a cellulolytic rumen bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:2379–2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Russell JB, Hino T (1985) Regulation of lactate production inStreptococcus bovis: a spiraling effect that contributes to rumen acidosis. J Dairy Sci68:1712–1721Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Russell JB, Wilson DB (1988) Potential opportunities and problems for genetically altered rumen microorganisms. J Nutr 118:271–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russell JB, Sharp WM, Baldwin RL (1979) The effect of pH on maximum bacterial growth rate and its possible role as a determinant of bacterial competition in the rumen. J Anim Sci 48:251–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wallace RJ (1989) Identification of slowly metabolized sugars and sugar derivatives that could be used to establish new or modified microbial species in the rumen. Curr Microbiol 19:271–274Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wallace RJ, Brammall ML (1985) The role of different species of bacteria in the hydrolysis of protein in the rumen. J Gen Microbiol 131:821–832Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wallace RJ, Holms WH (1986) maintenance coefficients and rates of turnover of cell material inEscherichia coli at different growth temperatures. FEMS Microbiol Lett 37:317–320Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wallace RJ, McPherson CA (1987) Factors affecting the rate of breakdown of bacterial protein in rumen fluid. Br J Nutr 58:313–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    West CD, Rapoport S (1949) Modification of colorimetric method for the determination of mannitol and sorbitol in plasma and urine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 70:141–142Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolin MJ (1969) Volatile fatty acids and the inhibition ofEscherichia coli growth by rumen fluid. Appl Microbiol 17:83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zilberstein D, Schuldiner S, Padan E (1979) Proton electrochemical gradient inEscherichia coli cells and its relation to active transport of lactose. Biochemistry 18:669–673PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. John Wallace
    • 1
  • Margaret L. Falconer
    • 1
  • Padma K. Bhargava
    • 1
  1. 1.Rowett Research InstituteAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations