Nickel resistance mechanisms in yeasts and other fungi
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This review describes nickel toxicity and nickel resistance mechanisms in fungi. Nickel toxicity in fungi is influenced by environmental factors such as pH, temperature and the existence of organic matter and other ions. We describe resistance mechanisms in nickel-resistant mutants of yeasts and filamentous fungi which were obtained by exposure to a mutagen or by successive culture in media containing increasing concentrations of nickel ion. Nickel resistance may involve: (1) inactivation of nickel toxicity by the production of extracellular nickel-chelating substances such as glutathione; (2) reduced nickel accumulation, probably by modification of a magnesium transport system; (3) sequestration of nickel into a vacuole associated with free histidine and involving Ni-insensitivity of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase.
Key wordsNickel Resistance Yeast Fungi
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