A nonlinear deformation modulus based on rock mass classification

  • G. A. Nicholson
  • Z. T. Bieniawski


This paper describes the development of an empirical nonlinear stress dependent expression for the deformation modulus of rock masses based on rock mass classification. The expression defines the deformation modulus as the ratio of the deviator stress at failure to the major principal strain at failure. The Hoek and Brown failure criterion is used to predict the deviator stress at failure. Research was directed toward developing a failure criterion defining the major principal strain at failure. The expression for the deformation modulus was extended to rock mass conditions through correlations with observed deformations from case history studies and predicted deformations from finite element analyses.


Deformation modulus nonlinear stress dependent rock mass classification rock 


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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall Ltd. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Nicholson
    • 1
  • Z. T. Bieniawski
    • 2
  1. 1.USAE Waterways Experiment StationVicksburgUSA
  2. 2.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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