Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 340–352 | Cite as

Acute ethanol consumption synergizes with trauma to increase monocyte tumor necrosis factor α production late postinjury

  • Gyongyi Szabo
  • Pranoti Mandrekar
  • Bikash Verma
  • Ann Isaac
  • Donna Catalano
Original Articles

Abstract

The hypothesis that acute ethanol uptake plus trauma can synergize to increase immunosuppression was tested. We found that, unlike non-alcohol-exposed patients, patients with acute alcohol use prior to trauma have a transient decrease in monocyte tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) production during the very early postinjury (0–3 days) period. However, TNFα production by these alcoholexposed patients' monocytes (MØ) became hyperelevated late postinjury (>9 days). Consequently, these massively elevated MØ TNFα levels can contribute to posttrauma immunosuppression after acute alcohol use. We also demonstrate that normal monocyte activation with the superantigen,Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), results in a preferential induction of cellassociated MØ TNFα production, described as characteristic of immunosuppressed trauma patients. Acutein vitro ethanol treatment down-regulated the elevated TNFα production by trauma patients' MØ after either SEB, muramyl-dipeptide (MDP), interferon-γ plus MDP, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Both SEB- and LPS-induced TNFα mRNA induction was inhibited by acute alcohol treatment in normal MØ, indicating that ethanol can regulate cytokine gene expression. An additional immunosuppressive effect of acute ethanol's stimulation was suggested by its induction of elevated transforming growth factor β production in trauma patients' activated MØ.

Key words

Immunosuppression superantigens transforming growth factor β prostaglandin E2 cell-associated tumor necrosis factor α 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gyongyi Szabo
    • 1
  • Pranoti Mandrekar
    • 1
  • Bikash Verma
    • 1
  • Ann Isaac
    • 1
  • Donna Catalano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Massachusetts Medical CenterWorcester

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