Sex Roles

, Volume 31, Issue 11–12, pp 703–719 | Cite as

The responses of African American men to dominant norms of masculinity within the United States

  • Ian Harris
  • José B. Torres
  • Dale Allender


In this study, responses of White/European American and African American men to dominant norms of masculinity within the United States were investigated. A general model for male identity formation is presented including the influence of cultural perspectives, dominant cultural norms, and specific circumstances. A questionnaire identifying 24 specific male gender role messages was administered to 451 White/European American men and 58 African American men. Results of this study suggest that at age 18 African American men report similar perspectives about masculinity as do White/European American men, but as they grow older their views of masculinity tend to diverge from the views held by White/European Americans.


United States General Model Social Psychology Gender Role Male Gender 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Harris
    • 1
  • José B. Torres
    • 1
  • Dale Allender
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

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