Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 639–656 | Cite as

A body image scale for evaluating transsexuals

  • Thomas W. Lindgren
  • Ira B. Pauly
Article

Abstract

Body image has come to mean not only the way one perceives his body but also how one feels about these perceptions. It is an important part of one's total self-concept. As such, it can present a significant problem for many individuals. For individuals with gender identity problems, such as transsexuals, body image dissatisfaction and distortion are a fundamental aspect of their condition. It is possible to more fully understand this condition by appreciating the distinction between the reality of the transsexual's body and his preferred body image. The Body Image (BI-1) scale presented here represents an effort to quantify the transsexual's body attitude. It consists of 30 body features which the subject is asked to rate on a 5-point scale of satisfaction. This test, as part of a larger seven-test battery, was administered to 16 male and 16 female transsexuals. The data have been analyzed for comparisons between males and females, for the effects of endocrinological and surgical treatment on body attitude, and for the common denominators which characterize the transsexual's body attitude. This instrument is being used as an additional tool in evaluating the transsexual's request for sex-reassignment surgery and in following those individuals who have been accepted for treatment as they progress through the evaluation and treatment program.

Key words

transsexualism body image sex reassignment hormone treatment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benjamin, H. (1953). Transvestism and Transsexualism.Int. J. Sexol. 7: 12–14.Google Scholar
  2. Benjamin, H. (1954). Transvestism and transsexualism as psychosomatic and somato-psychic syndromes.Am. J. Psychother. 8: 219–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benjamin, H. (1966).The Transsexual Phenomenon Julian Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Benjamin, H., and Ihlenfeld, C. (1973). Transsexualism.Am. J. Nursing 73: 457–463.Google Scholar
  5. Bowman, K. M., and Engle, B. (1957). Medicolegal aspects of transvestism.Am. J. Psychiat. 113: 583–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berscheid, E., Walster, E., and Bohrnstedt (1973). The happy American body: A survey report.Psychol. Today 7: 119–131 (November).Google Scholar
  7. Cauldwell, D. (1949). Psychopathia transsexualis.Sexology 16: 274–280.Google Scholar
  8. Green, R., and Money, J., eds. (1969).Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  9. Green, R., Stoller, R., and MacAndrews, C. (1966). Attitudes toward sex transformation procedures.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 15: 178–182.Google Scholar
  10. Guze, H. (1967). The transsexual patient: A problem in self-perception.Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 29: 464–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kolb, L. C. (1959). Disturbances of the body image. In Arieti, S. (ed.),American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol. 1, Basic Books, New York, pp. 749–769.Google Scholar
  12. Kubie, L. S., and Mackie, J. B. (1968). Critical issues raised by operations for gender transmutation.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 147: 431–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Money, J. (1967). Breasts in intersexuality and transsexualism.J. Am. Med. Women's Assoc. 22: 869–875.Google Scholar
  14. Money, J., and Brennan, J. G. (1968). Sexual dimorphism in the psychology of female transsexuals.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 147: 487–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Money, J., and Erhardt, A. A. (1972).Man and Woman, Boy and Girl Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  16. Money, J., and Primrose, C. (1968). Sexual dimorphism and dissociation in the psychology of male transsexuals.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 147: 472–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Money, J., and Wolff, G. (1973). Sex reassignment: Male to female to male.Arch. Sex. Behav. 2: 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Money, J., Hampson, J. G., and Hampson, J. L. (1957). Imprinting and the establishment of gender role.Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 77: 333–336.Google Scholar
  19. Pauly, I. (1965). Male psychosexual inversion: Transsexualism.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 13: 172–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Pauly, I. (1968). The current status of the change of sex operation.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 147: 460–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Pauly, I. (1969a). Adult manifestations of male transsexualism. In Green, R., and Money, J. (eds.),Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 37–58.Google Scholar
  22. Pauly, I. (1969b). Adult manifestations of female transsexualism. In Green, R., and Money, J. (eds.),Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 59–87.Google Scholar
  23. Pauly, I. (1974a). Female transsexualism. I.Arch. Sex. Behav. 3: 487–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Pauly, I. (1974b). Female transsexualism. II.Arch. Sex Behav. 3: 509–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Schilder, P. (1950).The Image and Appearance of the Human Body International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Stoller, R. J. (1968).Sex and Gender Science House, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Walinder, J. (1967).Transsexualism: A Study of Forty-three Cases Scandinavian University Books, Goteborg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas W. Lindgren
    • 1
  • Ira B. Pauly
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Oregon Medical SchoolPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Columbia Psychiatric ClinicPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations