Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 415–426 | Cite as

Sex-related motor behavior: Effects on social impressions and social cooperation

  • Steven C. Hayes
  • Susan R. Leonard
Article

Abstract

Advances have been made recently in the measurement of sex-related motor behaviors (i.e., sex-typed ways of standing, sitting, walking, and gesturing). While these behaviors are an important dependent variable (e.g., as a measure of sex role), they can also be viewed as an independent variable. The present paper reports two experiments on the effect of sex-related motor behaviors. In the first, videotapes of males and females behaving in extremely sex-typed ways (both “masculine” and “feminine”) were rated on a number of dimensions (e.g., sexual orientation, likeability). In the second, male and female confederates behaving in extremely sex-typed ways approached people and asked for their cooperation in filling out a long survey. Females showing “masculine” motor behavior were thought to be more masculine and unnatural appearing but also elicited significantly more cooperation than when acting feminine. Males showing “feminine” mannerisms were thought to be feminine, unnatural, unlikeable, unconfident, and probably homosexual, and elicited less actual cooperation than when acting masculine. In general, cross-sex motor behavior had mixed social effects with females and consistently negative social effects with males.

Key words

motor behavior sexual mannerisms social judgments of social cooperations homosexuality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barlow, D. H. (1977). Assessment of sexual behavior. In Ciminero, A. R., Calhoun, K. S., and Adams, H. E. (eds.),Handbook of Behavioral Assessment John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Barlow, D. H., Reynolds, J., and Agras, S. (1973). Gender identity change in a transexual.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 28: 569–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, D. H., Hayes, S. C., Nelson, R. O., Steele, D., Meeler, M., and Mills, J. (1979). Sex role specific motor behavior: A behavioral checklist.Behav. Ass. 1: 119–138.Google Scholar
  4. Bem, S. L. (1974) The measurement of psychological androgyny.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 42: 155–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Birdwhistell, R. (1970).Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  6. Freedman, J. L., and Fraser, S. C. (1966). Complicance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 4: 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Green, R. (1974).Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. Basic Books, New York; Gerald Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  8. Green, R. (1979). Childhood Cross-gender behavior and subsequent sexual perference.Almer. J. Psychiat. 136: 106–108.Google Scholar
  9. Green, R., Neuberg, D. and Finch, S. (1983). Sex-typed motor behaviors of feminine boys, conventionally masculine boys, and conventional girls.Sex Roles 9: 571–579.Google Scholar
  10. Hartley, R. E. (1959). Sex role pressures and the socialization of the male child.Psychol. Rep. 5: 457–468.Google Scholar
  11. Hayes, S. C., Nelson, R. O., Steele, D. L., Meeler, M. E., and Barlow, D. H. (in press). Instructional control of sex-related motor behavior in extremely masculine or feminine adults.Sex Roles. Google Scholar
  12. Hayes, S. C., Nelson, R. O., Steele, D. L., Meeler, M. E., and Barlow, D. H. (1982). The development of the display and knowledge of sex related motor behavior in children.Child Behav. Ther. 3: 1–24.Google Scholar
  13. Heckerman, C. J., Schoen, S., and Barlow, D. H. (1981). Situational specificity of sex role motor behavior: A preliminary investigation.Behav. Ass. 3: 43–51.Google Scholar
  14. Hewes, G. W. (1957). The anthropology of posture.Sci. Amer. 196: 123–132.Google Scholar
  15. Jenni, D. A., and Jenni, M. (1976). Carrying behavior in humans: Analysis of sex differences.Science 188: 859–860.Google Scholar
  16. Kelly, J. A., and Worell, J. (1977). New formulations of sex roles and androgyny: A critical review.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 45: 1101–1115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelly, K., and Kiersky, S. (1979). Psychotherapists and sexual stereotypes: A study of bias in diagnostic interviews employing videotape simulations. Paper presented at the meeting of the New York State Psychological Association, Saratoga, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Klein, A. R., and Bates, J. E. (1980). Gender typing of game choices and qualities of boy's play behavior.J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 8: 201–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McKenna, W. and Denmark, F. L. (1978). Gender and nonverbal behavior as cues to status and power. Paper presented at the meeting of the New York Academy of Science, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Rekers, G. A., Lovaas, O. I., and Low, B. (1974). The behavioral treatment of a transsexual.J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 2: 99–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rekers, G. A., Amaro-Plotkin, H. D., and Low, B. P. (1977a). Sex-typed mannerisms in normal boys and girls as a function of sex and age.Child Dev. 48: 275–278.Google Scholar
  22. Rekers, G. A., Willis, T. J., Yates, C. E., Rosen, A. C., and Low, B. P. (1977b). Assessment of childhood gender behavior change.J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. 18: 53–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Tilby, P., and Kalin, R. (1979). Effects of sex role deviance in disturbed male adolescents on the perception of psychopathology.Can. J. Behav. Sci. 11: 45–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven C. Hayes
    • 1
  • Susan R. Leonard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations