Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 9–25 | Cite as

Adjustment of male homosexuals and heterosexuals

  • Marvin Siegelman


A consideration of the marked disagreement in the literature concerning the adjustment of homosexuals compared to heterosexuals led to the present study. Male homosexuals (307) and male heterosexuals (137), obtained from nonclinical sources, responded to questionnaires measuring several adjustment variables. For the total samples, the homosexuals, compared to the heterosexuals, described themselves as less well adjusted on four scales, better adjusted on three scales, and not different on six scales. A select group of masculine homosexuals, in contrast to masculine heterosexuals, reported better adjustment on six factors, no differences on six dimensions, and atypical adjustment on one factor. The importance of considering nonclinical masculine vs. feminine homosexuals and heterosexuals, the multifactorial nature of adjustment, and the problem of subject selection are discussed.


Adjustment Variable Male Homosexual Good Adjustment Present Writer Heterosexual Male 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barnes, K. C., Bidder, A. M., Fox, R., Heron, A., James, J. G., Nicholson, K., Parry, M., Rosenberg, L. T. A., and Wedmore, K. (1964).Towards a Quaker View of Sex 2nd ed., Friends Home Service Committee, London.Google Scholar
  2. Benedict, R. F. (1934).Patterns of Culture Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  3. Bergler, E. (1951).Neurotic Counterfeit Sex Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bieber, T. B. (1965). Acting out in homosexuality. In Abt, E. L., and Weissman, S. L. (eds.)Acting Out—Theoretical and Clinical Aspects Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bieber, I. (1967). Sexual deviations. II: Homosexuality. In Freedman, A. M., and Kaplan, H. I. (eds.),Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp. 963–976.Google Scholar
  6. Bieber, I., Dain, H. J., Dince, P. R., Drellich, M. G., Grand, H. G., Gundlach, R. H., Kremer, M. W., Rifkin, A. H., Wilbur, C. B., and Bieber, T. B. (1962),Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Braaten, L., and Darling, C. (1965). Overt and covert homosexual problems among male college students.Genet. Psychol. Monogr. 71 269–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, D. G. (1957). The development of sex-role inversion and homosexuality.J. Pediat. 50 613–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, D. G. (1958). Inversion and homosexuality.Amer. J. Orthopsychiat. 28 424–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cattell, R. B., and Marony, J. H. (1962). The use of the 16 PF in distinguishing homosexuals, normals, and general criminals.J. Consult. Psychol. 26 531–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cattell, R. B., Saunders, D. R., and Stice, G. (1957).Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
  12. Chang, J., and Block, J. (1960). A study of identification in male homosexuals.J. Consult. Psychol. 24 307–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Churchill, W. (1967).Homosexual Behavior Among Males: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Species Investigation Hawthorn Books, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, J. (1965). Some statistical issues in psychological research. In Wolman, B. B. (ed.),Handbook of Clinical Psychology McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 95–121.Google Scholar
  15. Comry, A. L. (1964). Personality factors compulsion, dependence, hostility, and neuroticism.Educ. Psychol. Meas. 24 75–84.Google Scholar
  16. Crowne, D. P., and Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology.J. Consult. Psychol. 24 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crowne, D. P., and Marlowe, D. (1964).The Approval Motive Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Curran, D., and Parr, D. (1957). Homosexuality: An analysis of 100 male cases seen in private practice.Brit. Med. J. 1 797–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dean, R. B., and Richardson, H. (1964). Analysis of MMPI profiles of forty college-educated overt male homosexuals.J. Consult. Psychol. 28 483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeLuca, J. N. (1966). The structure of homosexuality.J. Project. Tech. Personal. Assess. 30 187–191.Google Scholar
  21. DeLuca, J. N. (1967). Performance of overt male homosexuals and controls on the Blacky Test.J. Clin. Psychol. 23 497.Google Scholar
  22. Dickey, B. A. (1961). Attitudes toward sex roles and feelings of adequacy in homosexual males.J. Consult. Psychol. 25 116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dignan, M. H. (1965). Ego identity and maternal identification.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 1 476–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doidge, W. T., and Holtzman, W. H. (1960). Implications of homosexuality among Air Force trainees.J. Consult. Psychol. 24 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellis, A. (1968). The right to be wrong.J. Sex Res. 4 96–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Erikson, E. H. (1947). Ego development and historical change. In Freud, A., Hartman, H., and Kris, E. (eds.),Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, Vol. 2, International University Press, New York, pp. 359–396.Google Scholar
  27. Erikson, E. H. (1955). Growth and crises of the “healthy personality.” In Kluckhohn, C., and Murray, H. A. (eds.),Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture 2nd ed., Knopf, New York, pp. 185–225.Google Scholar
  28. Ford, C. S., and Beach, F. A. (1951).Patterns of Sexual Behavior Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Freud, S. (1949).Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Imago Publishing Co., London.Google Scholar
  30. Freud, S. (1951). Letter to an American mother.Amer. J. Psychiat. 107 786–787.Google Scholar
  31. Gagnon, J. H., and Simon, W. (eds.) (1967).Sexual Deviance Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Gershman, H. (1966). Reflections on the nature of homosexuality.Amer. J. Psychoanal. 26 46–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gough, H. G. (1952). Identifying psychological femininity.Educ. Psychol. Meas. 12 427–439.Google Scholar
  34. Gough, H. G. (1964).California Psychological Inventory Consulting Psychologists Press, California.Google Scholar
  35. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1955).Report on Homosexuality with Particular Emphasis on This Problem in Governmental Agencies, Report No. 30, Topeka, Kansas.Google Scholar
  36. Hadden, S. B. (1967). Male homosexuality.Pa. Med. J. 70 78–80.Google Scholar
  37. Harvey, O. J., Prather, M. S., White, J., and Alter, R. D. (1966). Teachers' belief systems and preschool atmospheres.J. Educ. Psychol. 57 373–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heilbrun, A. B., Jr. (1968). Sex role, instrumental-expressive behavior, and psychopathology in females.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 73 131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoffman, M. (1968).The Gay World Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Hollingshead, A. B., and Redlich, F. C. (1958).Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Hooker, E. (1957). The adjustment of the male overt homosexual.J. Project. Tech. 21 1–31.Google Scholar
  42. Hooker, E. (1958). Male homosexuality in the Rorschach.J. Project. Tech. 22 33–54.Google Scholar
  43. Hooker, E. (1965). An empirical study of some relations between sexual patterns and gender identity in male homosexuals. In Money, J. (ed.)Sex Research: New Developments Holt, New York, pp. 24–52.Google Scholar
  44. Jahoda, M. (1959).Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. W., and Martin, C. E. (1948).Sexual Behavior in the Human Male W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  46. Lansky, L. M. (1960). Mechanisms of defense: Sex identity and defenses against conflict. In Miller, D. R., and Swanson, G. G. (eds.),Inner Conflict and Defense Holt, New York, pp. 272–288.Google Scholar
  47. Lansky, L. M. (1962). The stability over time and under stress of conscious and unconscious masculinity-femininity.Amer. Psychologist 17 302–303 (abst.).Google Scholar
  48. Lansky, L. M., Crandall, V. J., Kagan, J., and Baker, C. T. (1961). Sex differences in aggression and its correlates.Child Develop. 32 45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lindner, R. (1961). Homosexuality and the contemporary scene. In Lindner, R. (ed.),Must You Conform Grove Press, New York, pp. 31–76.Google Scholar
  50. Lynn, D. B. (1969).Parental and Sex-Role Identification: A Theoretical Formulation McHutchen Publishing Corp., Berkeley.Google Scholar
  51. Marmor, J. (ed.) (1965).Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  52. McGuire, R. G. (1966). An inquiry into attitudes and value systems of a minority group. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  53. Offer, D., and Sabshin, M. (1966).Normality: Theoretical and Clinical Concepts of Mental Health Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Reed, M. R. (1957). The masculinity-femininity dimension in normal and psychotic subjects.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 55 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schachter, S. (1959).The Psychology of Affiliation Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  56. Scheier, I. H., and Cattell, R. B. (1961).The Neuroticism Scale Questionnaire Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
  57. Schofield, M. (1965).Sociological Aspects of Homosexuality: A Comparative Study of Three Types of Homosexuals Little, Brown and Co., Boston.Google Scholar
  58. Scott, W. A. (1958). Research of definitions of mental health and mental illness.Psychol. Bull. 55 29–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shepler, B. F. (1951) A comparison of masculinity-femininity measures.J. Consult. Psychol. 15 484–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Siegelman, M. (1965). College student personality correlates of early parent-child relationships.J. Consult. Psychol. 29 558–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Socarides, C. W. (1968). A provisional theory of aetiology in male homosexuality: A case of preoedipal origin.Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 49 27–37.Google Scholar
  62. Struening, E. L., and Richardson, A. H. (1965). A factor analytic exploration of the alienation, anomia and authoritarian domain.Amer. Sociol. Rev. 30 768–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sullivan, H. S. (1953).The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Tryon, R. C. (1957). Reliability and behavior domain validity: Reformulation and historical critique.Psychol. Bull. 54 229–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Van Den Haag, E. (1963). Notes on homosexuality and its cultural setting. In Ruitenbeck, H. M. (ed.),The Problem of Homosexuality in Modern Society E. P. Dutton and Co., New York, p. 297.Google Scholar
  66. Vroegh, K. (1968). Masculinity and femininity in the preschool years.Child Develop. 39 1253–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. West, D. J. (1967).Homosexuality Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  68. Wolfenden, J. (1963).The Wolfenden Report Stein and Day, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Zucker, R. A., and Manosevitz, M. (1966). MMPI patterns of overt male homosexuals: Reinterpretation and comment on Dean and Richardson's study.J. Consult. Psychol. 30 555–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin Siegelman
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationThe City College of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations