Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 543–554 | Cite as

Comparison of height and weight in homosexual versus nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics

  • Ray Blanchard
  • Robert Dickey
  • Corey L. Jones
Article

Abstract

The authors' clinical impression that homosexual gender-dysphoric males are physically smaller than nonhomosexual gender-dysphoric males was tested. Subjects were 176 homosexual and 246 nonhomosexual male outpatients, ages 16 to 65, who complained of discontent with their biological sex. Compared with the nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics, the homosexual gender dysphorics were shorter, lighter, and lighter in proportion to their height. The homosexual gender dysphorics were also shorter than men in the general population, whereas the nonhomosexual gender dysphorics were not. The smaller physiques of homosexual gender-dysphoric men may partly explain the clinical observation that these patients are somewhat more successful in passing as women.

Key words

gender dysphoria height homosexuality transsexualism weight 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, L. S., and Gorski, R. A. (1992). Sexual orientation and the size of the anterior commissure in the human brain.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 7199–7202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, J. M., and Zucker, K. J. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review.Dev. Psychol. 31: 43–55.Google Scholar
  3. Bieber, I., Dain, H. J., Dince, P. R., Drellich, M. G., Grand, H. G., Gundlach, R. H., Kremer, M. W., Rifkin, A. H., Wilbur, C. B., and Bieber, T. B. (1962).Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Blalock, H. M. (1972).Social Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Blanchard, R. (1985). Typology of male-to-female transsexualism.Arch. Sex. Behav. 14: 247–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard, R. (1988). Nonhomosexual gender dysphoria.J. Sex Res. 24: 188–193.Google Scholar
  7. Blanchard, R. (1989a). The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias.Arch. Sex. Behav. 18: 315–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchard, R. (1989b). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 177: 616–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanchard, R., and Bogaert, A. F. (1994). Biodemographic comparisons of homosexual and heterosexual men in the Kinsey interview data. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  10. Blanchard, R., and Sheridan, P. M. (1992a). Proportion of unmarried siblings of homosexual and non homosexual gender-dysphoric patients.Can. J. Psychiat. 37: 163–167.Google Scholar
  11. Blanchard, R., and Sheridan, P. M. (1992b). Sibship size, sibling sex ratio, birth order, and parental age in homosexual and nonhomosexual gender dysphorics.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 180: 40–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute. (1988). Unpublished data from The Campbell's Survey on Well-Being in Canada. Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute, Ottawa, ON.Google Scholar
  13. Cole, M. M. (1983). The developmental antecedents of sexual preference among males. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  14. Dörner, G., Rohde, W., Stahl, F., Krell, L., and Masius, W.-G. (1975). A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men.Arch. Sex. Behav. 4: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Engelman, L. (1990). One-way analysis of covariance. In Dixon, W. J. (ed.),BMDP Statistical Software Manual, Vol. 2, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 1121–1133.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, R. B. (1972). Physical and biochemical characteristics of homosexual men.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 39: 140–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fichter, M. M., and Daser, C. (1987). Symptomatology, psychosexual development and gender identity in 42 anorexic males.Psychol. Med. 17: 409–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gettelman, T. E., and Thompson, J. K. (1993). Actual differences and stereotypical perceptions in body image and eating disturbance: A comparison of male and female heterosexual and homosexual samples.Sex Roles 29: 545–562.Google Scholar
  19. Gladue, B. A., Beatty, W. W., Larson, J., and Staton, R. D. (1990). Sexual orientation and spatial ability in men and women.Psychobiology 18: 101–108.Google Scholar
  20. Gladue, B. A., Green, R., and Hellman, R. E. (1984). Neuroendocrine response to estrogen and sexual orientation.Science 225: 1496–1499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Green, R. (1987).The “Sissy Boy Syndrome” and the Development of Homosexuality, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  22. Herzog, D. B., Newman, K. L., and Warshaw, M. (1991). Body image dissatisfaction in homosexual and heterosexual males.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 179: 356–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Herzog, D. B., Norman, D. K., Gordon, C., and Pepose, M. (1984). Sexual conflict and eating disorders in 27 males.Am. J. Psychiat. 141: 989–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., and Martin, C. E. (1948).Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  25. LeVay, S. (1991). A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men.Science 253: 1034–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Manosevitz, M. (1970). Early sexual behaviors in adult homosexual and heterosexual males.J. Abn. Psychol. 76: 396–402.Google Scholar
  27. Manosevitz, M. (1972). The development of male homosexuality.J. Sex Res. 8: 31–40.Google Scholar
  28. McCormick, C. M. (1990). A neuropsychological study of sexual orientation: Neurobiological implications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.Google Scholar
  29. McCormick, C. M., Witelson, S. F., and Kingstone, E. (1990). Left-handedness in homosexual men and women: Neuroendocrine implications.Psychoneuroendocrinology 15: 69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McCormick, C. M., and Witelson, S. F. (1991). A cognitive profile of homosexual men compared to heterosexual men and women.Psychoneuroendocrinology 16: 459–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nedoma, K., and Freund, K. (1961). Somatosexuální nálezy u homosexuálních mužů [Somatosexual findings in homosexual men].Česk. Psychiatr. 57: 100–103. (FromExcerpta Medica, 1961, 14 [VIII], Abstract No. 6319)Google Scholar
  32. Robinson, P. H., and Holden, N. L. (1986). Bulemia nervosa in the male: A report of nine cases.Psychol. Med. 16: 795–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Saghir, M. T., and Robins, E. (1973).Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  34. Sanders, G., and Ross-Field, L. (1986a). Sexual orientation and visuo-spatial ability.Brain Cognit. 5: 280–290.Google Scholar
  35. Sanders, G., and Ross-Field, L. (1986b). Sexual orientation, cognitive abilities and cerebral asymmetry: A review and a hypothesis tested.Italian J. Zool. 20: 459–470.Google Scholar
  36. Sanders, R. M., Bain, J., and Langevin, R. (1985). Peripheral sex hormones, homosexuality, and gender identity. In Langevin, R. (ed.),Erotic Preference, Gender Identity, and Aggression in Men: New Research Studies, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 227–247.Google Scholar
  37. Schneider, J. A., and Agras, W. S. (1987). Bulemia in males: A matched comparison with females.Int. J. Eating Disord. 6: 235–242.Google Scholar
  38. Silberstein, L. R., Mishkind, M. E., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Timko, C., and Rodin, J. (1989). Men and their bodies: A comparison of homosexual and heterosexual men.Psychosom. Med. 51: 337–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Steiner, B. W. (1990). Intake assessment of gender-dysphoric patients. In Blanchard, R., and Steiner, B. W. (eds.),Clinical Management of Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adults, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp. 93–106.Google Scholar
  40. Stephan, W. G. (1973). Parental relationships and early social experiences of activist male homosexuals and male heterosexuals.J. Abn. Psychol. 82: 506–513.Google Scholar
  41. Storms, M. D. (1981). A theory of erotic orientation development.Psychol. Rev. 88: 340–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Swaab, D. F., and Hofman, M. A. (1990). An enlarged suprachiasmatic nucleus in homosexual men.Brain Res. 537: 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tanaka, T., Suwa, S., Yokoya, S., and Hibi, I. (1988). Analysis of linear growth during puberty.Acta Paediat. Scand. 77(Suppl. 347): 25–29.Google Scholar
  44. Terman, L. M., and Miles, C. C. (1936).Sex and Personality: Studies in Masculinity and Femininity, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Tourney, G., Petrilli, A. J., and Hatfield, L. M. (1975). Hormonal relationships in homosexual men.Am. J. Psychiat. 132: 288–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Tripp, C. A. (1982). Tripp's answer to Bell, Weinberg & Hamersmith's objections to his review of theirSexual preference: Its development in men and women.J. Sex Res. 18: 366–368.Google Scholar
  47. Underwood, L. E., and Van Wyk, J. J. (1992). Normal and aberrant growth. In Wilson, J. D., and Foster, D. W. (eds.),Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th ed., W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1079–1138.Google Scholar
  48. Weinrich, J. D., Heaton, R. K., Atkinson, J. H., McCutchan, J. A. Grant, I., and the HNRC Group. (1992, July). The effect of childhood gender nonconformity on height, weight, depression, and neuropsychological motor impairment. Presented at the meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, Prague, Czechoslovakia.Google Scholar
  49. Willmott, M., and Brierley, H. (1984). Cognitive characteristics and homosexuality.Arch. Sex. Behav. 13: 311–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Yager, J., Kurtzman, F., Landsverk, J., and Wiesmeier, E. (1988). Behaviors and attitudes related to eating disorders in homosexual male college students.Am. J. Psychiat. 145: 495–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Zucker, K. J. (1990). Gender identity disorders in children: Clinical descriptions and natural history. In Blanchard, R., and Steiner, B. W. (eds.),Clinical Management of Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adults, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  52. Zuger, B. (1984). Early effeminate behavior in boys: Outcome and significance for homosexuality.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 172: 90–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ray Blanchard
    • 1
  • Robert Dickey
    • 1
  • Corey L. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Gender Identity ClinicClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations