Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: Development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS)
- 463 Downloads
Two hundred twenty-eight respondents (110 heterosexuals and 118 homosexuals) completed a survey containing a 20-item Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). This scale was largely composed of edited and abridged gender items from Part A of Freund et al.'s Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGISA) and Whitam's “childhood indicators.” The combined scale was developed in an attempt to obtain a reliable, valid, and potent discriminating instrument for accurately classifying adult male respondents for sexual orientation on the basis of their reported boyhood gender conformity or nonconforming behavior and identity. In addition, 33% of these respondents were administered the original FGIS-A and Whitam inventory during a 2-week test-retest analysis conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the new instrument. All the original items significantly discriminated between heterosexual and homosexual respondents. From these a 13-item function and a 5-item function proved to be the most powerful discriminators between the two groups. Significant correlations between each of the three scales and a very high test-retest correlation coefficient supported the reliability and validity assumption for the BGCS. The conclusion was made that the five-item function (playing with boys, prefering boys' games, imagining self as sports figure, reading adventure and sports stories, considered a “sissy”) was the most potent and parsimonious discriminator among adult males for sexual orientation. It was similarly noted that the absence of masculine behaviors and traits appeared to be a more powerful predictor of later homosexual orientation than the traditionally feminine or cross-sexed traits and behaviors.
Key wordssexual orientation gender identity homosexuality gender nonconformity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bell, A. P., Weinberg, M. S. and Hammersmith, S. K. (1981).Sexual Preference Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
- Bieber, I., Dain, H. J., Dince, P. R., Drellich, M. G., Grand, H. G., Gondlach, R. H. Kremer, M. W., Rifkin, A. H., Wilber, C. B., and Bieber, T. B. (1962).Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
- Billingham, R. E., and Hockenberry, S. L. (1987). Gender conformity, masturbation fantasy, infatuation, and sexual orientation: A discriminant analysis investigation.J. Sex. Res. 23: 368–374.Google Scholar
- Green, R. (1974).Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
- Green, R. (1987).The “Sissy Boy Syndrome” and the Development of Homosexuality Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Hair, Jr., J. F., Anderson, R. E., Talham, R. L., and Grablowsky, B. J. (1984).Multivariate Data Analysis Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
- Harry, J. (1982).Gay Children Grown-Up: Gender Culture and Gender Deviance Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
- Hockenberry, S. L. (1985). Male sexual orientation: The development roles of gender identity, affectional, and erotic cognitions. Unpublished thesis, Indiana University.Google Scholar
- Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., and Martin, C. E. (1948).Sexual Behavior in the Human Male W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
- Saghir, M., and Robins, E. (1973).Male and Female Homosexuality Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Whitam, F. L., and Mathy, R. M. (1986).Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, The Philippines, and the United States. Praeger, New York.Google Scholar