The clinical profile of male transsexuals living as females vs. those living as males
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- Langevin, R., Paitich, D. & Steiner, B. Arch Sex Behav (1977) 6: 143. doi:10.1007/BF01541706
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The clinical profiles of five male groups were compared: transsexuals who live as females (FEM), those who live as males (MAL), homosexual patients (HOP), homosexual controls (HOC), and heterosexual controls (CON). The MAL group showed psychotic features on the MMPI and a greater frequency of suicide attempts than the other groups. Their sexual behavior was incongruous in that they have had substantial sexual contact with men but less often desired sexual contact with men. They also less often desired to handle the penis of an adult man or to kiss him on the lips. They were more likely to find handling another's penis disgusting. However, they showed considerable involvement of their penis in sex relations with men. The FEM group, in contrast, had MMPI profiles suggestive of character disorders and tended to engage in antisocial behavior. Both MAL and FEM groups were similar in MMPI and 16 PF “femininity.” The HOP group showed overall similarity to MAL but was not as pathological. The HOC and CON groups were similar in being normal but their sexual behavior differed, as expected. The paradoxical behavior of MAL is discussed as well as the parallel of the FEM group's behavior to that of criminals.