Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 413–425 | Cite as

Sex-typing behavior and sex-typing pressure in child/parent interaction

  • Carol Nagy Jacklin
  • Janet Ann DiPietro
  • Eleanor E. Maccoby

Abstract

The sex-typing of children and the sex-typing pressure of parents was investigated during free play in a home visit. There were 30 male and 24 female 45-month-olds observed with their mothers and fathers in separate free-play sessions during which an array of both sex-stereotyped and neutral toys were available. Behavioral observations were recorded for a variety of parent, child, and dyadic behaviors, including initiations of sex-typed play, total sex-typed play, and rough-and-tumble play. Children initiated sex-typed play and played with sex-appropriate toys. Father-child and mother-daughter dyads were more likely to engage in thematic play appropriate to the child's sex, while in mother-son dyads equal amounts of masculine and feminine play occurred. In addition father-son dyads displayed the highest levels of rough-and tumble play and arousal of child by parent. The results suggest that fathers are the discriminating influence on sex-appropriate play.

Key words

sex typing differential socialization parent/child interaction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baumrind, D., and Black, A. A. (1967). Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence in preschool boys and girls.Child Dev. 38: 291–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. DeLucia, L. (1972). Stimulus preference and discrimination in learning. In Rosenblith, J. F., Allinsmith, W., and Williams, J. P. (eds.),The Causes of Behavior Allyn & Bacon, Boston.Google Scholar
  3. Edwards, C., and Whiting, B. (1979). The inadequacy of current study of differential socialization of girls and boys in the light of cross-cultural research. Paper presented at the Biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  4. Fagot, B. (1978). The influence of sex of child on parental reactions to toddler children.Child Dev. 49: 459–465.Google Scholar
  5. Fagot, B., and Patterson, G. R. (1969). Anin vivo analysis of reinforcing contingencies for sex role behaviors in the preschool child.Dev. Psychol. 1: 563–568.Google Scholar
  6. Henshall, C. H. (1980). Relationships between nursery school children's understanding of gender and gender roles, and the gender stereotyping in their observed behavior. Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society, Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  7. Kraemer, H. C., and Jacklin, C. N. (1979). Statistical analysis of dyadic social behavior.Psychol. Bull. 86: 217–224.Google Scholar
  8. Lamberg, W. E., Yackley, A., and Hein, R. N. (1971). Child-training values of English Canadian and French-Canadian parents.Can. J. Behav. Sci. 3: 217–236.Google Scholar
  9. Langlois, J., and Downs, C. (1980). Mothers, fathers and peers as socialization agents of sextyped play behavior in young children.Child Dev. 7: 1237–1247.Google Scholar
  10. Laosa, L. M., and Brophy, J. E. (1972). Effects of sex and birth order on sex-role development and intelligence among kindergarten children.Dev. Psychol. 6: 409–415.Google Scholar
  11. Maccoby, E. E., and Jacklin, C. N. (1974).The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.Google Scholar
  12. Mood, A. M. (1971). Partitioning variance in multiple regression analyses as a tool for developing learning models.Amer. Educ. Res. J. 8: 191–202.Google Scholar
  13. Sears, R. R., Rau, L., and Alpert, R. (1965).Identification and Child Rearing. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.Google Scholar
  14. Serbin, L. A., Connor, J. M., Burchardt, C. J., and Citron, C. C. (1979). Effects of peer presence on sex-typing of children's play behavior.J. Exp. Child Psychol. 27: 303–309.Google Scholar
  15. Siegelman, M. (1965). Evaluation of Bronfenbrenner's questionnaire for children concerning parental behavior.Child Dev. 36: 163–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Snow, M. E., Jacklin, C. N., and Maccoby, E. E. (1983). Sex-of-child differences in fatherchild interaction.Child Dev. 54: 227–234.Google Scholar
  17. Tauber, M. A. (1979a). Sex differences in parent-child interaction styles during a free play session.Child Dev. 50: 981–988.Google Scholar
  18. Tauber, M. A. (1979b). Parent socialization techniques and sex differences in children's play.Child Dev. 50: 225–234.Google Scholar
  19. Ward, W. D. (1968). Variance of sex-role preference among boys and girls.Psychol. Rep. 23: 467–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol Nagy Jacklin
    • 1
  • Janet Ann DiPietro
    • 2
  • Eleanor E. Maccoby
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Illinois, Champaign-UrbanaUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations