Gout and uric acid nephropathy: Some new aspects in diagnosis and treatment
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It has been recognized that primary disorders of uric acid metabolism result from impaired renal excretion or increased endogenous production of uric acid. It has also been found that these two mechanisms do not comprise two distinct syndromes, but may each constitute a group of syndromes. Contrary to earlier as well as currently published reports we conclude from our clinical and experimental experience that the fraction of so-called over-producers is less than 1% of all patients with primary hyperuricaemia and gout. A procedure for the diagnosis of uric acid overproduction is suggested. The manifestation of hyperuricaemia and gout mainly depends on renal uric acid clearance and is greatly influenced by dietary habits in most of the patients. An impaired renal uric acid excretion results in an increased intestinal excretion; this partly compensates for the defect.
Normalization of serum uric acid should be achieved by dietary regimens with or without additional drug treatment, but not by drug treatment alone. With drug treatment xanthine oxidase inhibitors are preferable to uricosurics; no other xanthine oxidase inhibitor besides Allopurinol has been in clinical trial, however. Due to the enhancement of uric acid clearance with uricosurics, there are groups of patients who should not be treated with these drugs. Fixed combinations of Allopurinol and uricosurics should not be used. Drugs which have uricosuric as well as other pharmacologic properties are under investigation. So far they have not reached general clinical application.
Key wordsHyperuricaemia Gout Nephropathy
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