Advertisement

Prognosis in autism: A follow-up study

  • Marian K. DeMyer
  • Sandra Barton
  • William E. DeMyer
  • James A. Norton
  • John Allen
  • Robert Steele
Article

Abstract

A follow-up study involving 85 autistic boys and 35 girls, c. 5 1/2 years of age at initial evaluation and 12 years at follow-up, is presented and discussed in considerable detail. Measures, also applied to 26 non-psychotic subnormal controls, included speech, social, educational, and family adequacy ratings, IQ's, and neurological data. Most autistic children remained educationally retarded and 42% were institutionalized. Good agreement with 2 studies by other authors indicated the following prognosis in autism: 1–2% recovery to normal, 5–15% borderline, 16–25% fair, and 60–75% poor. The best predictor of functional capacity in a work/school setting was the child's rating at intake. Performance IQ and severity of illness were next to best predictors. Case histories of 20 children with the best outcome, including 2 functioning normally, are compared and analyzed. Also, etiological implications of results are outlined in support of theories linking the cause of autism to biological factors.

Keywords

Good Predictor Initial Evaluation Functional Capacity Case History Biological Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpern, G. D. & Boll, T. J.Development profile manual. Indianapolis: Psychological Development Publications, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Alpern, G. D., & Kimberlin, C. C. Short intelligence test ranging from infancy levels through childhood levels for use with the retarded.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1970,75, 65–71.Google Scholar
  3. Beery, K. E.Development test of visual-motor integration: Administration and scoring manual. Chicago: Follet Educational Corp., 1967.Google Scholar
  4. Chess, S., Korn, S. J., & Fernandez, P. B.Psychiatric disorders of children with congenital rubella. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. Churchill, D. W. The relation of infantile autism and early childhood schizophrenia to developmental language disorders of childhood.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1972,2, 182–197.Google Scholar
  6. Conel, J.The postnatal development of the human cerebral cortex, Vol. I–VIII. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Unversity Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  7. DeMyer, M. K., Alpern, G. D., Barton, S., DeMyer, W. E., Churchill, D. W., Hingtgen, J. N., Bryson, C. Q., Pontius, W., & Kimberlin, C. Imitation in autistic, early schizophrenic, and non-psychotic subnormal children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1972,2, 264–287. (a)Google Scholar
  8. DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., & Norton, J. A. A comparison of adaptive, verbal and motor profiles of psychotic and non-psychotic subnormal children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1972,2, 359–377. (b)Google Scholar
  9. DeMyer, M. K., Churchill, D. W., Pontius, W., & Gilkey, K. A comparison of five diagnostic systems for childhood schizophrenia and infantile autism.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 175–189.Google Scholar
  10. DeMyer, M. K., Norton, J. A., & Barton, S. Social and adaptive behaviors of autistic children as measured in a structured psychiatric interview. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. K. DeMyer (Eds.),Infantile Autism: Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium. Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. DeMyer, M. K., Norton, J., & Barton, S.A system for predicting outcome in autistic and other subnormal children. Research Report No. 11. Indianapolis: Clinical Research Center for Early Childhood Schizophrenia, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. DeMyer, M. K., Pontius, W., Norton, J. A., Barton, S., Allen, J., & Steele, R. Parental practices and innate activity in normal, autistic, and brain-damaged infants.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schiophrenia, 1972,2, 49–66. (c)Google Scholar
  13. Dixon, W. J. (Ed.)BMD-biomedical computer programs. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  14. Doll, E. A.Vineland social maturity scale manual of directions. Minneapolis: Educational Test Bureau, 1947.Google Scholar
  15. EEG-Olofsson, O. The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children and adolescents from the age of 1 through 21 years.Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, Supplementum 208, 1971.Google Scholar
  16. Eisenberg, L. The autistic child in adolescence.American Journal of Psychiatry, 1956,112, 607–613.Google Scholar
  17. Gesell, A., & Amatruda, C.Developmental diagnosis. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1951.Google Scholar
  18. Gittelman, M., & Birch, H. G. Childhood schizophrenia: Intellect, neurologic status, perinatal risk, prognosis, and family pathology.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1967,17, 16–25.Google Scholar
  19. Goodenough, F. L.Measurement of intelligence by drawings. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1926.Google Scholar
  20. Hingtgen, J. N., & Churchill, D. W. Identification of perceptual limitations in mute autistic children.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969,21, 68–71.Google Scholar
  21. Kanner, L. Follow-up study of eleven autistic children originally reported in 1943.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 119–145.Google Scholar
  22. Koppitz, E. M.The Bender-Gestalt test for young children. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1971.Google Scholar
  23. Lobascher, M. D., Kingerlee, P. E., & Gubbay, S. S. Childhood autism: An investigation of aetiological factors in 25 cases.British Journal of Psychiatry, 1970,117, 525–540.Google Scholar
  24. Mittler, P., Gillies, S., & Jukes, E. Prognosis in psychotic children: Report of follow-up study.Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 1966,10, 73–83.Google Scholar
  25. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. I. Description of the sample.British Journal of Psychiatry, 1967,113, 1169–1182. (a)Google Scholar
  26. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. II. Social and behavioural outcome.British Journal of Psychiatry, 1967,113, 1183–1199. (b)Google Scholar
  27. Sheridan, M. D.The developmental progress of infants and young children: Ministry of Health reports on public health and medical subjects. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, No. 102, 1960.Google Scholar
  28. Small, J. G., DeMyer, M. K., & Milstein, V. CNV responses of autistic and normal children.Journal of Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 215–231.Google Scholar
  29. Stutsman, R.Mental measurement of preschool children with a guide for administering the Merrill-Palmer scale of mental tests. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1948.Google Scholar
  30. Terman, L. M., & Merrill, M. A.Stanford-Binet intelligence scale, manual for the third revision Form L-M. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.Google Scholar
  31. Wechsler, D.Wechsler intelligence scale for children: Manual. New York: The Psychological Corp., 1949.Google Scholar
  32. Yakovlev, P. K. Morphological criteria of growth and maturation in the nervous system in man.Research Publication of the Association for Nervous and Mental Diseases, 1962,39, 3–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© V. H. Winston & Sons, Inc. 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marian K. DeMyer
    • 1
  • Sandra Barton
    • 1
  • William E. DeMyer
    • 1
  • James A. Norton
    • 1
  • John Allen
    • 1
  • Robert Steele
    • 1
  1. 1.Indiana University School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations