Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 253–277

Deviant behavior and self-enhancement in adolescence

  • Howard B. Kaplan
Article

Abstract

The hypothesis that “among initially high self-derogation subjects deviant response patterns (alcohol and drug abuse, delinquent patterns, etc.) are related to subsequent decreases in self-derogation” was tested with data from a longitudinal survey study of adolescents. Among higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) males initially high self-derogation subjects who adopted (relative to those who did not adopt) any of several deviant patterns manifested significantly greater subsequent base-free decreases in self-derogation. For higher SES females only narcotics use (and among lower SES females no deviant pattern) was significantly related to subsequent decrease in self-derogation. Together with collateral data, these results indicated that where the deviant patterns were compatible with valued social roles and the subjects were able to defend against negative responses by others (but not under mutually exclusive conditions), deviant patterns functioned to reduce self-rejecting feelings among initially highly self-derogating subjects.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anhalt, H. S., and Klein, M. (1976). Drug abuse in junior high school populations.Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse 3: 589–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arieti, S. (1967). Some elements of cognitive psychiatry.Am. J. Psychother. 124: 723–736.Google Scholar
  3. Aronson, E., and Mettee, D. R. (1968). Dishonest behavior as a function of differential levels of induced self-esteem.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 9: 121–127.Google Scholar
  4. Beller, E. K., and Neubauer, P. B. (1963). Sex differences and symptom patterns in early childhood.J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiat. 2: 414–433.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, E. M., and Cohen, L. R. (1959). Men and women: Personality patterns and contrasts.Genet. Psychol. Monogr. 59: 101–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg, N. L. (1971). Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-concept.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 32: 422–453.Google Scholar
  7. Bogo, N., Winget, C., and Gleser, G. (1970). Ego defenses and perceptual styles.Percept. Motor Skills 30: 599–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brehm, M. L., and Back, K. W. (1968). Self image and attitudes toward drugs.J. Personal. 36: 299–314.Google Scholar
  9. Burke, E. L., and Eichberg, R. H. (1972). Personality characteristics of adolescent users of dangerous drugs as indicated by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 154: 291–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buss, A. H., and Brock, T. C. (1963). Repression and guilt in relation to aggression.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 66: 345–350.Google Scholar
  11. Carroll, J. L., and Fuller, G. B. (1969). The self and ideal self-concept of the alcoholic as influenced by length of sobriety and/or participation in Alcoholics Anonymous.J. Clin. Psychol. 25: 363–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cosentino, F., and Heilbrun, A. B. (1964). Anxiety correlates of sex-role identity in college students.Psychol. Rep. 14: 729–730.Google Scholar
  13. Cronbach, L. J., and Furby, L. (1970). How we should measure “change” — or should we?Psychol. Bull. 74: 68–80.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, G. C., and Brehm, M. L. (1971). Juvenile prisoners: Motivational factors in drug use.Proc. Am. Psychol. Assoc. 6 (Part 1): 333–334.Google Scholar
  15. Davis, K. E. (1972). Drug effects and drug use. In Wrightsman, L. S. (ed.),Social Psychology in the Seventies, Brooks-Cole, Monterey, Calif. pp. 517–545.Google Scholar
  16. DeFundia, T. A., Dragnus, J. G., and Phillips, L. (1971). Culture and psychiatric symptomatology: A comparison of Argentine and United States patients.Soc. Psychiat. 6: 11–20.Google Scholar
  17. Exline, R. V. (1962). Effects of need for affiliation, sex, and the sight of others upon initial communications in problem-solving groups.J. Personal. 30: 541–556.Google Scholar
  18. Fine, B. (1955).1,000,000 Delinquents, World Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Fitts, W. H., and Hammer, W. T. (1969).The Self-Concept and Delinquency, Counselor Recordings and Tests, Nashville, Tenn.Google Scholar
  20. Fitzgibbons, D. J., Berry, D. F., and Shearn, C. R. (1973). MMPI and diagnosis among hospitalized drug abusers.J. Commun. Psychol. 1: 79–81.Google Scholar
  21. Glaser, K. (1965). Attempted suicide in children and adolescents: psycho-dynamic observations.Am. J. Psychother. 19: 220–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gleser, G. C., and Ihilevich, D. (1969). An objective instrument for measuring defense mechanisms.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 33: 51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gold, M., and Mann, D. (1972). Delinquency as defense.Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 42: 463–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gough, H. G., and Peterson, D. R. (1952). The identification and measurement of predispositional factors in crime and delinquency.J. Consult. Psychol. 16: 207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Graf, R. G. (1971). Induced self-esteem as a determinant of behavior.J. Soc. Psychol. 85: 213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Grosser, G. H. (1951). Juvenile delinquency and contemporary American sex roles. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  27. Hattem, J. V. (1964). The precipitating role of discordant interpersonal relationships in suicidal behavior.Diss. Abstr. 25: 1135–1136.Google Scholar
  28. Isenberg, P., Schnitzer, R., and Rothman, S. (1977). Psychological variables in student activism: The radical triad and some religious differences.J. Youth Adoles. 6: 11–24.Google Scholar
  29. Jensen, G. F. (1972). Delinquency and adolescent self-conceptions: A study of the personal relevance of infraction.Soc. Probl. 20: 84–103.Google Scholar
  30. Jessor, R., Carman, R. S., and Grossman, P. H. (1970). Expectations for need satisfaction and patterns of alcohol use in college. In Maddox, G. (ed.),The Domesticated Drug: Drinking Among Collegians, College and University Press, New Haven, Conn. pp. 321–342.Google Scholar
  31. Jessor, R., Jessor, S. L., and Finney, J. (1973). A social psychology of marijuana use: Longitudinal studies of high school and college youth.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 26: 1–15.Google Scholar
  32. Jones, M. C. (1968). Personality correlates and antecedents of drinking patterns in adult males.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 32: 2–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, M. C. (1971). Personality antecendents and correlates of drinking patterns in women.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 36: 61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaplan, H. B. (1972). Toward a general theory of psychosocial deviance: The case of aggressive behavior.Soc. Sci. Med. 6: 593–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaplan, H. B. (1975a). Increase in self-rejection as an antecedent of deviant responses.J. Youth Adoles. 4: 281–292.Google Scholar
  36. Kaplan, H. B. (1975b).Self-Attitudes and Deviant Behavior, Goodyear Publishing Company, Pacific Palisades, Calif.Google Scholar
  37. Kaplan, H. B. (1975c). Sequelae of self-derogation: Predicting from a general theory of deviant behavior.Youth Soc. 7: 171–197.Google Scholar
  38. Kaplan, H. B. (1975d). The self-esteem motive and change in self-attitudes.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 161: 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaplan, H. B. (1976a). Antecendents of negative self-attitudes: Membership group devaluation and defenselessness.Soc. Psychiat. 11: 15–25.Google Scholar
  40. Kaplan, H. B. (1976b). Self-attitudes and deviant response.Soc. Forces. 54: 788–801.Google Scholar
  41. Kaplan, H. B. (1976c). Self-attitude change and deviant behavior.Soc. Psychiat. 11: 59–67.Google Scholar
  42. Kaplan, H. B. (1977a). Antecendents of deviant responses: Predicting from a general theory of deviant behavior.J. Youth Adoles. 6: 89–101.Google Scholar
  43. Kaplan, H. B. (1977b). Gender and depression: A sociological analysis of a conditional relationship. In Fann, W. E., Karacan, I., Pokorny, A. D., and Williams, R. L. (eds.),Phenomenology and Treatment of Depression, Spectrum Publishing Company, New York, pp. 81–113.Google Scholar
  44. Kaplan, H. B. (1977c). Increase in self-rejection and continuing/discontinued deviant response.J. Youth Adoles. 6: 77–87.Google Scholar
  45. Kaplan, H. B. (1978a). Self-attitudes and schizophrenia. In Fann, W. E., Karacan, I., Pokorny, A. D., and Williams, R. L. (eds.),Phenomenology and Treatment of Schizophrenia, Spectrum Publishing Company, New York, pp. 241–292.Google Scholar
  46. Kaplan, H. B. (1978b). Social class, self-derogation and deviant response.Soc. Psychiat. 13: 19–28.Google Scholar
  47. Kaplan, H. B., and Pokorny, A. D. (1969). Self-derogation and psychosocial adjustment.J. Nerv. Men. Dis. 149: 421–434.Google Scholar
  48. Lansky, L. M., Crandall, V. J., Kagan, J., and Baker, C. T. (1961). Sex differences in aggression and its correlates in middle-class adolescents.Child Dev. 32: 45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Leon, C. A. (1969). Unusual patterns of crime during La Violencia in Colombia.Am. J. Psycyiat. 125: 1564–1575.Google Scholar
  50. Levitin, T. A., and Chananie, J. D. (1972). Responses of female primary school teachers to sex-typed behaviors in male and female children.Child Dev. 43: 1309–1316.Google Scholar
  51. Maccoby, E. E. (1966).The Development of Sex Differences, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  52. Maccoby, E. E., and Jacklin, C. N. (1974).The Psychology of Sex Differences, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  53. McCandless, B. R., Bilous, C. B., and Bennett, H. L. (1961). Peer popularity and dependence on adults in pre-school age socialization.Child Dev. 32: 511–518.Google Scholar
  54. McClelland, D. V. (1972). Examining the research basis for alternative explanations of alcoholism. In McClelland, D. C., Davis, W. N., Kalin, R., and Wanner, E. (eds.),The Drinking Man, Free Press, New York, pp. 276–315.Google Scholar
  55. McCord, W., and McCord, J. (1960).Origins of Alcoholism, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  56. Miller, D. (1968).Toward a symbolic interaction theory of suicide.Diss. Abstr. 28: 4720A.Google Scholar
  57. Moore, S. G. (1964). Displaced aggression in relation to different frustrations.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 68: 200–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Moore, T., and Ucko, L. E. (1961). Four to six: Constructiveness and conflict in meeting doll play problems.J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. 2: 21–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Morris, R. R. (1964). Female delinquency and relational problems.Soc. Forces. 43: 82–89.Google Scholar
  60. Rebelsky, F. G., Alinsmith, W., and Grinder, R. E. (1963). Resistance to temptation and sex differences in children's use of fantasy confession.Child Dev. 34: 955–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rempel, H., and Signoi, E. I. (1964) Sex differences in self-relating of conscience as a determinant of behavior.Psychol. Rep. 15: 277–278.Google Scholar
  62. Rothaus, P., and Worchel, P. (1964). Ego-support, communication, catharsis, and hostility.J. Personal. 32: 296–312.Google Scholar
  63. Sadava, S. W. (1973). Patterns of college student drug use: A longitudinal social learning study.Psychol. Rep. 33: 75–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Scarpitti, F. R. (1965). Delinquent and non-delinquent perceptions of self, values and opportunity.Ment. Hyg. 49: 399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sears, R. R. (1961). Relation of early socialization experiences to aggression in middle childhood.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 63: 466–492.Google Scholar
  66. Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., and Levin, H. (1957).Patterns of Child Rearing, Row Peterson, Evanston, Ill.Google Scholar
  67. Sears, R. R., Ray, L., and Alpert, R. (1965).Identification and Child Rearing, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  68. Segal, B., Rhenberg, G., and Sterling, S. (1975). Self-concept and drug and alcohol use in female college students.J. Alcohol. Drug Educ. 20: 17–22.Google Scholar
  69. Smart, R. G., and Whitehead, P. C. (1974). The uses of an epidemiology of drug use: The Canadian scene.Int. J. Addict. 9: 373–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith, G. M., and Fogg, C. P. (1975). Teenage drug use: A search for causes and consequences. In Lettieri, D. J. (ed.),Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, D.C., pp. 279–298.Google Scholar
  71. Spangler, D. P., and Thomas, C. W. (1962). The effects of age, sex, and physical disability upon manifested needs.J. Counsel. Psychol. 9: 313–319.Google Scholar
  72. Stokes, J. P. (1974). Personality traits and attitudes and their relationship to student drug using behavior.Int. J. Addict. 9: 267–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Tittle, C. R., and Rowe, A. R. (1973). Moral appeal, sanction threat, and deviance: An experimental test.Soc. Probl. 20: 488–498.Google Scholar
  74. Toch, H. (1969).Violent Men, Aldine Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  75. Vanderpool, J. A. (1969). Alcoholism and the self-concept.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 30: 59–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Washburn, W. C. (1963). The effects of sex differences on protective attitudes in delinquents and non-delinquents.Except. Child 30: 111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Welch, B. L. (1947). The generalization of “student's” problems when several different population variances are involved.Biometrika 34: 28–35.Google Scholar
  78. Williams, A. F. (1965). Self-concepts of college problem drinkers: (1) A comparison with alcoholics.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 26: 589–594.Google Scholar
  79. Williams, J. R. (1976).Effects of Labeling The “Drug Abuser”: An Inquiry, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, Md.Google Scholar
  80. Wilson, L. T., Braucht, G. N., Miskimins, R. W., and Berry, K. L. (1971). The severe suicide attempter and self-concept.J. Clin. Psychol. 27: 307–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wood, A. L. (1961). A socio-structural analysis of murder, sucide, and economic crime in Ceylon.Am. Sociol. Rev. 26: 744–753.Google Scholar
  82. Wyer, R. S., Weatherley, D. A., and Terrell, G. (1965). Social role aggression and academic achievement.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 1: 645–649.Google Scholar
  83. Wylie, R. C. (1961).The Self Concept. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Neb.Google Scholar
  84. Zucker, R. (1968). Sex-role identity patterns and drinking behavior among adolescents.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 22: 868–884.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard B. Kaplan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryBaylor College of MedicineHouston

Personalised recommendations