Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 149–166 | Cite as

The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults

  • Lenore Sawyer Radloff
Article

Abstract

The existence of depression in children and adolescents is well established, but debate remains about the phenomenology of the depressive syndrome in the young. In order to discover possible age differences in rates and etiology, the definition and measurement of depression must be comparable across the ages to be studied. A widely used self-report depression symptom scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, was administered to convenient (and not necessarily representative) samples of high school and college students. The scores and patterns of responses to the 20 symptom items of the scale were compared with already existing data from junior high school students, from depressed patients, and from a representative community sample of adults and young adults. The results of the analyses suggest that the CES-D Scale is acceptable and reliable in all the groups studied. The scores of the junior high school group may be inflated by an excess of transient symptoms and should be interpreted with caution, but the scale seems to be very suitable for the high school and older groups.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1980).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Boyd, J. H., and Weissman, M. M. (1984). The epidemiology of depressive symptoms and major affective disorders. In Klerman, G. L., Applebaum, P. S., Roth, L. H., and Weissman, M. M. (eds.),Epidemiology, Legal and Social Psychiatry, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  3. Brooks-Gunn, J., Rock, D., and Warren, M. P. (1989). Comparability of constructs across the adolescent years.Develop. Psychol. 25: 51–60.Google Scholar
  4. Carlson, G. A. (1983). Depression and suicidal behavior in children and adolescents. In Cantwell, D. P., and Carlson, G. A. (eds.),Affective Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: An Update. Spectrum, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Craig, T. J., and Van Natta, P. A. (1976). Presence and persistence of depressive symptoms in patient and community populations.Am. J. Psychiatr. 133: 1426–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ebata, A. T., Petersen, A. C., and Conger, J. J. (1987). The development of psychopathology in adolescence. In Rolf, J. E., Masten, A., Cicchetti, D., Neuchterlin, K. H., and Weintraub, S. (eds.),Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  7. Endicott, J., and Spitzer, R. L. (1979). Use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to study affective disorders.Am. J. Psychiat. 136: 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Garrison, C. Z., Schoenbach, V. J., and Kaplan, B. H. (1984). Depressive symptoms in early adolescence. In Dean, A. (ed.),Depression in Multidisciplinary Perspective. Brunner/Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Gotlib, I. H. (1984). Depression and general psychopathology in university students.J. Abnormal Psychol. 93: 19–30.Google Scholar
  10. Hagnell, O., Lanke, J., Rorsman, B., and Ojesjo, L. (1982). Are we entering an age of melancholy? Depressive illness in a prospective epidemiologic study over 25 years: The Lundby study, Sweden.Psychol. Med. 12: 279–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirschfeld, R., and Cross, C. (1982). Epidemiology of affective disorders.Arch. Gen. Psychiatr. 39: 35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Husani, B. A., Neff, J. A., Harrington, J. B., Hughes, M. D., and Stone, R. H. (1980). Depression in rural communities: Validating the CES-D Scale.J. Commun. and Psychol. 8: 137–146.Google Scholar
  13. Kandell, D., and Davies, M. (1982). Epidemiology of depressive mood in adolescents: An empirical study.Arch. Gen. Psychiatr. 39: 1205–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kashani, J. H., Husain, A., Shekim, W. O., Hodges, K. K., Cytryn, L., and McKnew, D. H. (1981). Current perspectives on childhood depression: An overview.Am. J. Psychiat. 138: 143–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kashani, J. H., and Simonds, J. F. (1979). The incidence of depression in children.Am. J. Psychiatr. 136: 1203–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kashani, J. H., McGee, R. D., Clarkson, S. E., Anderson, J. C., Walton, L. A., Williams, S., Silva, P. A., Robins, A. J., Cytryn, L., and McKnew, D. H. (1983). Depression in a sample of 9-year old children: Prevalence and associated characteristics.Arch. Gen. Psychiatr. 40: 1217–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kovacs, M. (1983). The Children's Depression Inventory: A self-rating depression scale for schoolaged youngesters. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  18. Milazzo-Sayre, L. (1978). Changes in the age, sex and diagnostic composition of additions to state and county mental hospitals, United States 1969–1975.Mental Health Stat. Notes 148: 1–24.Google Scholar
  19. National Center for Health Statistics. (1980). Basic data on depressive symptomatoloyg: United States, 1974–75 (prepared by R. B. Sayetta & D. P. Johnson).Vital and health statistics, Series 11, #216. DHEW Publication NO. (PHS) 80-1666, Public Health Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  20. Petersen, A. C., Schulenberg, J. E., Abramowitz, R. H., Offer, D., and Jarcho, H. D. (1984). A Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): Reliability and validity studies.J. Youth Adolesc. 13: 93–111.Google Scholar
  21. Puig-Antich, J. (1987). Affective disorders in children and adolescents: Diagnosis, validity and psychobiology. In Meltzer, H. (ed.),Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.Applied Psychol. Measure. 1: 385–401.Google Scholar
  23. Radloff, L. S., and Locke, B. Z. (1986). The Community Mental Health Assessment Survey and the CES-D Scale. In Weissman, M., Myers, J., and Ross, C. (eds.),Community Surveys. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  24. Radloff, L. S., and Teri, L. (1986). The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with older adults. In Brink, T. L. (ed.),Clinical Gerontology: A Guide to Assessment and Intervention. Haworth Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Rutter, M. (1986). Depressive feelings, cognitions and disorders: A research postscript. In Rutter, M., Izard, C. E., and Read, P. B. (eds.),Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives, Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Schoenbach, V. J., Kaplan, B. H., Grimson, R. C., and Wagner, E. H. (1982). Use of a symptom scale to study the prevalence of a depressive syndrome in young adolescents.Am. J. Epidemiol. 116: 791–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schoenbach, V. J., Kaplan, B. H., Wagner, E. H., Grimson, R. C., and Miller, F. T. (1983). Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.Am. J. Public Health 73: 1281–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schoenbach, V. J., Garrison, C. Z., and Kaplan, B. H. (1984). Epidemiology of adolescent depression.Public Health Rev. 12: 159–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Smucker, M. R., Craighead, W. E. Craighead, L. W., and Green, B. J. (1986). Normative and reliability data for the Children's Depression Inventory.J. Abnormal Child Psychol. 14: 25–39.Google Scholar
  30. Teri, L. (1982). The use of the Beck Depression Inventory with adolescents.J. Abnormal. Child. Psychol. 10: 277–284.Google Scholar
  31. Weissman, M. M., Myers, J. K., Leaf, P. J., Tischler, G. L., & Holzer, C. E. (1986). The affective disorders: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA). In Hippius, H. (ed.),New Results in Depression Research. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  32. Weissman, M. M., Sholomskas, D., Pottenger, M., Prusoff, B. A., and Locke, B. Z. (1977). Asessing depressive symptoms in five psychiatric populations: A validation study.Am. J. Epidemiol. 106: 203–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wells, V. E., Klerman, G. L., and Deykin, E. Y. (1987). The prevalence of depressive symptoms in college students.Soc. Psychiatr. 22: 20–28.Google Scholar
  34. Wells, V. E., Deykin, E. Y., and Klerman, G. L. (1985). Risk factors for depression in adolescence.Psychiat. Develop. 3: 83–108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenore Sawyer Radloff
    • 1
  1. 1.Takoma Park

Personalised recommendations