Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 107–114 | Cite as

Relationships between socioeconomic status, locus of control, self-concept, and academic achievement of batswana adolescents

  • Muhammad Maqsud
  • Sepideh Rouhani


Relationships between socioeconomic status, locus of control, self-concept, and academic achievement were explored in secondary school pupils in the Mmabatho area of Bophuthalswana (Southern Africa). The analyses of data revealed the following: (a) both male and female Batswana adolescents were found significantly more externally oriented when compared against the normative data provided by Nowicki-Strickland (1973); (b) socioeconomic status was significantly positively associated with internality, self-concept, and academic achievement in English; (c) externality was significantly negatively related to self-concept and achievement in English; (d) self-concept was significantly positively correlated to measures of achievement in English and mathematics; and (e) mathematics achievement of male students was significantly higher than female ones.


Socioeconomic Status Health Psychology Academic Achievement Normative Data Male Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bar-Tal, D., and Bar-Zohar, Y. (1977). The relationship between perception of locus of control and academic achievement: Review and some educational implications.Contemp. Educat. Psychol. 2: 181–199.Google Scholar
  2. Bar-Tal, D., Kfir, D., Bar-Zohar, Y., and Chen, M. (1980). The relationship between locus of control and academic achievement, anxiety and level of aspirations.Br. J. Educat. Psychol. 50: 53–60.Google Scholar
  3. Battle, E., and Rotter, J. B. (1963). Children's feelings of personal control as related to social class and ethnic groups.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 31: 482–490.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatnager, J. (1969). A study of adjustment of immigrant children in a London school. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
  5. Chebat, J. C. (1986). Social responsibility, locus of control and social class.J. Soc. Psychol 126: 559–561.Google Scholar
  6. Child, D. (1981).Psychology and the Teacher (3rd ed.). Holt, Rinehart & Winston, London.Google Scholar
  7. Chiu, L. H. (1987). Locus of control differences between American and Chinese adolescents.J. Soc. Psychol. 128: 411–413.Google Scholar
  8. Coopersmith, S. (1967).The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  9. Cunningham, T., and Berberian, V. (1976). Sex differences in the relationship of self-concept to locus of control in children.Personal Soc. Psychol. Bull. 2: 277–281.Google Scholar
  10. Gore, P. S., and Rolter, J. B. (1963). A personality correlate of social action.J. Personal. 31: 58–64.Google Scholar
  11. Hansford, B. C., and Hattie, J. A. (1982). The relation between self and achievement/performance measures.Rev. Educ. Res. 52: 123–142.Google Scholar
  12. Hart, J. G. (1985). LAWSEQ: Its relation to other measures of self-esteem and academic ability.Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 55: 167–169.Google Scholar
  13. Hsieh, T. T., Shybut, J., and Lotsof, E. J. (1969). Internal versus external control and ethnic membership: A cross-cultural comparison.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 33: 122–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mahler, I. (1974). A comparative study of locus of control.Psychologia 17: 135–139.Google Scholar
  15. Maqsud, M. (1980). Relationships between personal control, moral reasoning and socioeconomic status of Nigerian Hausa adolescents.J. Youth Adolesc. 9: 281–288.Google Scholar
  16. Maruyama, G., Rubin, R., and Kingsbury, G. G. (1981). Self-esteem and educational achievement: Independent constructs with a common cause.J. Personal Soc. Psychol. 40: 962–975.Google Scholar
  17. McGinnies, E., Nordholm, L. A., Ward, C. D., and Bhanthumnavin, D. L. (1974). Sex and cultural differences in perceived locus of control among students in five countries.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 42: 451–455.Google Scholar
  18. Nowicki, S., and Strickland, B. R. (1973). A locus of control scale for children.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 40: 148–154.Google Scholar
  19. Obanya, P. (1976). Relationship between self-concept and performance in achievement tests of French.West Afr. J. Educat. Vocat. Measure. 3: 39–43.Google Scholar
  20. Piers, E., and Harris, P. (1964). Age and other correlates of self-concept in children.J. Educat. Psychol. 55: 91–95.Google Scholar
  21. Pottebaum, S. M., Keith, T. Z., and Ehly, S. W. (1986). Is there a causal relation between self-concept and academic achievement?J. Educat. Res. 79: 140–144.Google Scholar
  22. Purkey, W. W. (1970).Self-Concept and School Achievement. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  23. Rosenburg, M. J. (1965).Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  24. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychol. Monogr. 80(1).Google Scholar
  25. Ryckman, R. M., Posen, C. F., and Kulberg, G. G. (1978). Locus of control among American and Rhodesian children.J. Soc. Psychol. 104: 165–173.Google Scholar
  26. Sarson, J. G. (1972).Abnormal Psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., and Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of Child Rearing. Row Paterson, Evanston, IL.Google Scholar
  28. Shaw, R. L., and Uhl, N. P. (1971). Control of reinforcement and academic achievement.J. Educat. Res. 64: 226–228.Google Scholar
  29. Thomas, J. B. (1973).Self-concept in Psychology and Education: A Review of the Research. NFER, Slough.Google Scholar
  30. Wallace, J. R., Cunningham, T. F., and Monte, V. D. (1984). Changes in the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control.J. Soc. Psychol. 124: 261–262.Google Scholar
  31. Wylie, R. (1979).The Self-Concept: Theory and Research on Selected Topics (Vol. 2). University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Maqsud
    • 1
  • Sepideh Rouhani
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of BophuthatswanaBophuthatswanaSouthern Africa

Personalised recommendations