Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 11–36 | Cite as

Children's speech as a source of data toward the measurement of psychological states

  • Louis A. Gottschalk


A measurement of psychological states, based on the objective content analysis of small samples of speech, has undergone thorough reliability and constructvalidation studies for individuals in the age range 17–70. The present report is a first step in the extension of this method to children ages 6–16. It has involved a descriptive analysis of the frequency of use of various verbal content categories of 109 schoolchildren, roughly stratified for grade. Percentile scores have been obtained for such content analysis scales as anxiety, hostility outward, hostility inward, ambivalent hostility, social alienation-personal disorganization, cognitive impairment, human relations, hope, and achievement strivings. Comparisons are made between these children's scores on such measures and similar scores obtained from adults. Sex differences and developmental trends are examined.


Cognitive Impairment Health Psychology Content Analysis Descriptive Analysis Present Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ancoshian, L., and Carlson, J. S. (1973). A study of mental imagery and conversation within the Piagetian framework.Hum. Develop. 16: 382–394.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, R., and Berko, J. (1960). Word association and the acquisition of grammar.Child Develop. 31: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Costanzo, P. R., Coie, J. D., Grument, J. F., and Farnill, D. (1973). A reexamination of the effects of intent and consequences on children's moral judgement.Child Develop. 44: 154–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Entwisle, D. R. (1966).Word Associations of Young Children, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  5. Ervin, S. (1961). Changes with age in the verbal determinants of word association.Am. J. Psychol. 64: 361–372.Google Scholar
  6. Fuller, G. B. (1969). The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic test (revised).J. Clin. Psychol Monogr. Suppl. No. 28, 1–81.Google Scholar
  7. Gleser, G. C., Gottschalk, L. A., and Springer, K. J. (1961). An anxiety scale applicable to verbal samples.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 5: 593–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gleser, G. C., Gottschalk, L. A., Fox, R., and Lippert, W. (1965). Immediate changes in affect with chlordiazepoxide in juvenile delinquent boys.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 13: 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gottschalk, L. A. (1971). Some psychoanalytic research into the communication of meaning through language: The quality and magnitude of psychological states.Brit. J. Med. Psychol. 44: 131–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gottschalk, L. A. (1972). An objective method of measuring psychological states associated with changes in neural function.J. Biol. Psychiat. 4: 33–49.Google Scholar
  11. Gottschalk, L. A. (1974a). A hope scale applicable to verbal samples.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 30: 779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gottschalk, L. A. (1974b). The application of a method of content analysis to psychotherapy research.Am. J. Psychother. 28: 488–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottschalk, L. A. (1975). Drug effects in the assessment of affective states in man. In Essman, W. B., and Valzelli, L. (eds.),Current Developments in Psychopharmacology, Vol. 1, Spectrum Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Gottschalk, L. A., and Frank, E. C. (1967). Estimating the magnitude of anxiety from speech.Behav. Sci. 12: 289–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottschalk, L. A., and Gleser, G. C. (1964). Distinguishing characteristics of the verbal communications of schizophrenic patients. In Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases,Disorders of Communication, Vol. 42, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 400–413.Google Scholar
  16. Gottschalk, L. A., and Gleser, G. C. (1969).The Measurement of Psychological States Through the Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  17. Gottschalk, L. A., and Hambidge, G. (1955). Verbal behavior analysis: A systematic approach to the problem of quantifying psychologic processes.J. Project. Techniques 19: 387–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gottschalk, L. A., and Kaplan, S. M. (1958). A quantitative method of estimating variations in intensity of a psychologic conflict or state.Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 79: 688–696.Google Scholar
  19. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., Daniels, R. S., and Block, S. L. (1958). The speech patterns of schizophrenic patients: A method of assessing relative degree of personal disorganization and social alienation.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 127: 153–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., Springer, K. J., Kaplan, S. M., Shanon, J., and Ross, W. D. (1960). Effects of perphenazine on verbal behavior patterns.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 2: 632–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., Magliocco, E. B., and D'Zmura, T. L. (1961a). Further studies on the speech pattern of schizophrenic patients: Measuring inter-individual differences in relative degree of personal disorganization and social alienation.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 132: 101–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gottschalk, L. A., Springer, K. J., and Gleser, G. C. (1961b). Experiments with a method of assessing the variations in intensity of certain psychological states occurring during two psychotherapeutic interviews. In Gottschalk, L. A. (ed.),Comparative Psycholinguistic Analysis of Two Psychotherapeutic Interviews, International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., and Springer, K. J. (1963). Three hostility scales applicable to verbal samples.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 9: 254–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., D'Zmura, T., and Hanenson, I. B. (1964). Some psychophysiological relationships in hypertensive women: The effect of hydrochlorothiazide on the relation of affect to blood pressure.Psychosom. Med. 26: 610–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gottschalk, L. A., Cleghorn, J. M., Gleser, G. C., and Iacono, J. M. (1965a). Studies of relationships of emotions to plasma lipids.Psychosom. Med. 27: 102–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., Wylie, H. W., and Kaplan, S. M. (1965b). Effects of imipramine on anxiety and hostility levels derived from verbal communications.Psychopharmacologia 7: 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gottschalk, L. A., Winget, C. N., Gleser, G. C., and Springer, K. J. (1966). The measurement of emotional changes during a psychiatric interview: A working model toward quantifying the psychoanalytic concept of affect. In Gottschalk, L. A., and Auerbach, A. H. (eds.),Methods of Research in Psychotherapy, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Gottschalk, L. A., Stone, W. N., Gleser, G. C., and Iacono, J. M. (1969a). Anxiety and plasma free fatty acids (FFA).Life Sci. 8: 61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gottschalk, L. A., Winget, C. N., and Gleser, G. C. (1969b). Manual of Instructions for Using the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales: Anxiety, Hostility, and Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  30. Gottschalk, L. A., Gleser, G. C., Cleghorn, J. M., Stone, W. N., and Winget, C. N. (1970). Prediction of changes in severity of the schizophrenic syndrome with discontinuation and administration of phenothiazines in chronic schizophrenic patients: Language as a predictor and measure of change in schizophrenia.Comprehensive Psychiat. 11: 123–140.Google Scholar
  31. Gottschalk, L. A., Bates, D. E., Waskow, I. E., Katz, M. M., and Olson, J. (1971). Effect of amphetamine or chlorpromazine on achievement strivings scores derived from the content analysis of speech.Comprehensive Psychiat. 12: 430–435.Google Scholar
  32. Gottschalk, L. A., Elliott, H. W., Bates, D. E., and Cable, C. G. (1972a). The use of content analysis of short samples of speech for preliminary investigation of psychoactive drugs: Effect of lorazepam on anxiety scores.Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 13: 323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gottschalk, L. A., Haer, J. L., and Bates, D. E. (1972b). Effect of sensory overload on psychological state.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 27: 451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gottschalk, L. A., Fox, R. A., and Bates, D. E. (1973). A study of prediction and outcome in a Mental Health Crisis Clinic.Am. J. Psychiat. 130: 1107–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gottschalk, L. A., Stone, W. N., and Gleser, G. C. (1974). Peripheral versus central mechanisms accounting for anti-anxiety effect of propranolol.Psychosom. Med. 36: 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Houston, S. H. (1969). A sociolinguistic consideration of the black English of children in northern Florida.Language 45: 599–607.Google Scholar
  37. Houston, S. H. (1970). A reexamination of some assumptions about the language of the disadvantaged child.Child Develop. 41: 947–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jacobson, E., Uliana R. L., and Stolzoff, G. (1973). Evaluation and comparison of group therapeutic techniques for inpatient and outpatient for latency age boys. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Anaheim, Calif.Google Scholar
  39. Linneberg, E. H. (1966).New Directions in the Study of Language, M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  40. Loban, W. D. (1963).The Language of Elementary School Children: A Study of the Use and Control of Language Effectiveness in Communication, and the Relations Among Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Listening, Research Report No. 1, National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
  41. Loban, W. D. (1966a).Language Ability, Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine, OE-30018, Cooperative Research Monograph No. 18, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  42. Loban, W. D. (1966a).Problems in Oral English, Research Report No. 5, National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
  43. Luborsky, L., Docherty, J. P., Todd, T. C., Knapp, P. H., Mirsky, A. F., and Gottschalk, L. A. (1975). A context analysis of psychological states prior to petit mal EEG paroxysms.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 160: 282–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. McNeill, D. (1966).Developmental Psycholinguistics, Center for Cognitive Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (mimeographed).Google Scholar
  45. Meyer, W. J., and Shane, J. (1973). The form and function of childrens' questions.J. Genet. Psychol. 123: 285–296.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, P. H. (1973). Attention to stimulus dimensions in the conservation of liquid quantity.Child Develop. 44: 129–136.Google Scholar
  47. Murray, H. A. (1943).Thematic Apperception Test: Manual, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  48. Palermo, D. S., and Jenkins, J. J. (1964).Word Association Norms, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  49. Piaget, J. (1928).The Child's Conception of the World, Harcourt Brace, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Piaget, J. (1947).The Psychology of Intelligence, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  51. Piaget, J. (1952).The Child's Conception of Number, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  52. Wiig, E. H., and Semel, E. M. (1974). Development of comprehension of logicogrammatical sentences by grade school children.Percept. Motor Skills 38: 171–176.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis A. Gottschalk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, California College of MedicineUniversity of California at IrvineIrvine
  2. 2.Psychiatric ServicesOrange County Medical CenterOrange

Personalised recommendations