Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 59–79 | Cite as

Clinical observations of ghetto four-year-olds: Organization, involvement, interpersonal responsiveness, and psychosexual content of play

  • Gene H. Borowitz
  • Joan Costello
  • Jay G. Hirsch


This study attempted to refine the assessment of the effectance of four-year-old children through observation of their play. Two scales were developed; the first scale defined organization, involvement, and interpersonal responsiveness in play, and the second operationally defined psychosexual content of play. The validity and reliability of both scales and the inter correlations among the four major variables were explored. The results confirmed the validity and reliability of the instruments as measures of the children's effectance and important indicators of a child's capacity as a learner at age four.


Health Psychology Clinical Observation Important Indicator Major Variable Inter Correlation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gene H. Borowitz
    • 1
  • Joan Costello
    • 2
  • Jay G. Hirsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Illinois at the Medical CenterChicago
  2. 2.Yale University Child Study CenterNew Haven

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