Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 59–79 | Cite as

Clinical observations of ghetto four-year-olds: Organization, involvement, interpersonal responsiveness, and psychosexual content of play

  • Gene H. Borowitz
  • Joan Costello
  • Jay G. Hirsch
Article

Abstract

This study attempted to refine the assessment of the effectance of four-year-old children through observation of their play. Two scales were developed; the first scale defined organization, involvement, and interpersonal responsiveness in play, and the second operationally defined psychosexual content of play. The validity and reliability of both scales and the inter correlations among the four major variables were explored. The results confirmed the validity and reliability of the instruments as measures of the children's effectance and important indicators of a child's capacity as a learner at age four.

Keywords

Health Psychology Clinical Observation Important Indicator Major Variable Inter Correlation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Borowitz, G.H., Hirsch, J.G., and Costello, J. (1970). Play behavior and competence in ghetto four-year-olds.J. Special Educ. 4(2): 215–222.Google Scholar
  2. Costello, J., Hirsch, J.G., and Martin, J. (1969).Classroom Rating Scale (unpublished).Google Scholar
  3. Harris, I.D. (1961).Emotional Blocks to Learning. The Free Press of Glencoe, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Hirsch, J.G., Borowitz, G.H., and Costello, J. (1970). Individual differences in ghetto four-year-olds.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22: 268–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kohn, M., and Silverman, H. (1966). Competence scale and symptom checklist for preschool children. William Alanson White Institute, New York (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
  6. Pearson, G.H.J. (1952). A survey of learning difficulties in children.Psychoanal. Study of the Child 7: 322–286.Google Scholar
  7. White, R.W. (1963). Ego and reality in psychoanalytic theory.Psychol. Monographs 11: 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gene H. Borowitz
    • 1
  • Joan Costello
    • 2
  • Jay G. Hirsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Illinois at the Medical CenterChicago
  2. 2.Yale University Child Study CenterNew Haven

Personalised recommendations