Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 633–648 | Cite as

Parental support, coping strategies, and psychological adjustment: An integrative model with late adolescents

  • Charles J. Holahan
  • David P. Valentiner
  • Rudolf H. Moos


The purpose of this study was to apply an Integrative predictive model to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment among late adolescents. Findings using new measures of parental support and adaptive coping with 241 eighteen-year-old college freshmen supported hypotheses. Social support from both mother and father and a nonconflictual relationship between parents were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. Adolescents with high parental support were better adjusted and less distressed than were those with low parental support. Additionally, an integrative structural equation model showed that parental support was associated with psychological adjustment both directly and indirectly through a higher percent of approach coping strategies.


Social Support Equation Model Health Psychology Coping Strategy Predictive Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Avison, W. R., and McAlpine, D. D. (1992). Gender differences in symptoms of depression among adolescents.J. Health Social Behav. 33: 77–96.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.Am. Psychol. 37: 122–147.Google Scholar
  3. Borrine, M. L., Handal, P. J., Brown, N. Y., and Searight, H. R. (1991). Family conflict and adolescent adjustment in intact, divorced, and blended families.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 59: 753–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cantor, N., and Langston, C. A. (1989). Ups and downs of life tasks in a life transition. In Pervin, L. A. (ed.),Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  5. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence.Psychol. Bull. 101: 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Compas, B. E., MaIcarne, V. L., and Fondacaro, K. M. (1988). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56: 405–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Crean, H. F. (1994). Adjustment in Hispanic middle school students: An integrative model of risk and protective factors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  8. Cronkite, R. C., and Moos, R. H. (1984). The role of predisposing and moderating factors in the stress-illness relationship.J. Health Social Behav. 25: 372–393.Google Scholar
  9. Cutrona, C. E. (1989). Ratings of social support by adolescents and adult informants: Degree of correspondence and prediction of depressive symptoms.J. Personal. Social Psychol. 57: 723–730.Google Scholar
  10. Daniels, D., and Moos, R. H. (1990). Assessing life Stressors and social resources among adolescents: Applications to depressed youth.J. Adoles. Res. 5: 268–289.Google Scholar
  11. Ebata, A. T., and Moos, R. H. (1991). Coping and adjustment in distressed and healthy adolescents.J. Appl. Develop. Psychol. 12: 33–54.Google Scholar
  12. Eisen, P. (1986). Adolescence: Coping strategies and vulnerabilities.Int. J. Adolesc. Health 2: 107–117.Google Scholar
  13. Fleishman, J. A. (1984). Personality characteristics and coping patterns.J. Health Social Behav. 25: 229–244.Google Scholar
  14. Forsythe, C. J., and Compas, B. E. (1987). Interaction of cognitive appraisals of stressful events and coping: Testing the goodness of fit hypothesis.Cog. Ther. Res. 11: 473–385.Google Scholar
  15. Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In Stevenson, J. E. (ed.),Recent Research in Developmental Psychopathology. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Grotevant, H., and Cooper, C. (1985). Patterns of interaction in family relationships and the development of identity exploration in adolescence.Child Devel. 56: 415–428.Google Scholar
  17. Grych, J. H., and Finchman, F. D. (1990). Marital conflict and children's adjustment: A cognitive-contextual framework.Psychol. Bull. 108: 267–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Harter, S. (1986).Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  19. Hoffman, J. A., and Weiss, B. (1987). Family dynamics and presenting problems in college students.J. Consult. Psychol. 34: 157–163.Google Scholar
  20. Hoffman, M. A., Levy-Shiff, R., Solberg, S. C., and Zarizki, J. (1992). The impact of stress and coping: Developmental changes in the transition to adolescence.J. Youth Adolesc. 27: 451–469.Google Scholar
  21. Holahan, C. J., and Moos, R. H. (1987). Personal and contextual determinants of coping strategies.J. Personal. Social Psychol. 52: 946–955.Google Scholar
  22. Holahan, C. J., and Moos, R. H. (1990). Life Stressors, resistance factors, and improved psychological functioning: An extension of the stress resistance paradigm.J. Personal. Social Psychol. 58: 909–917.Google Scholar
  23. Holahan, C. J., and Moos, R. H. (1991). Life Stressors, personal and social resources, and depression: A 4-year structural model.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100: 31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Holahan, C. J., and Moos, R. H. (1994). Life Stressors and mental health: Advances in conceptualizing stress resistance. In Avison, W. R., and Gotlib, I. H. (eds.),Stress and Mental Health: Contemporary Issues and Prospects for the Future. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Holahan, C. J., Moos, R. H., Holahan, C. K., and Brennan, P. L. (1995). Social support, coping, and depressive symptoms in a late middle-aged sample of patients reporting cardiac illness.Health Psychol. 14: 152–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jöreskog, K. G., and Sörbom, D. (1989).LISREL 7: A Guide to the Program and Applications (2nd ed.). SPSS, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  27. Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S. (1984).Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Luthar, S. S., and Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood.Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 61: 6–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Maughan, B., and Champion, L. (1990). Risk and protective factors in the transition to young adulthood. In Baltes, P. B., and Baltes, M. M. (eds.),Successful Aging: Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  30. Moos, R. H. (1993).Coping Responses Inventory—Youth Form Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.Google Scholar
  31. Moos, R. H., and Moos, B. S. (1994).Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory—Youth Form Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.Google Scholar
  32. Moos, R. H., and Schaefer, J. A. (1993). Coping resources and processes: Current concepts and measures. In Goldberger, L., and Breznitz, S. (eds.),Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects (2nd ed.). Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Phares, V., and Compas, B. E. (1992). The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: Make room for daddy.Psychol. Bull. 11: 387–412.Google Scholar
  34. Pierce, G. R., Sarason, I. G., and Sarason, B. R. (1991). General and relationship-based perceptions of social support: Are two constructs better than one?J. Personal. Social Psychol. 61: 1028–1039.Google Scholar
  35. Powers, S. I., Hauser, S. T., and Kilner, L. A. (1989). Adolescent mental health.Am. Psychol. 44: 200–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rice, K. G., Cole, D. A., and Lapsley, D. K. (1990). Separation-individuation, family cohesion, and adjustment to college: Measurement validation and a test of a theoretical model.J. Counsel. Psychol. 37: 195–202.Google Scholar
  37. Roth, S., and Cohen, L. J. (1986). Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress.Am. Psychol. 41: 813–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 57: 316–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Shulman, S., Seiffge-Krenke, I., and Samet, N. (1987). Adolescent coping style as a function of perceived family climate.J. Adoles. Res. 2: 367–381.Google Scholar
  40. Spielberger, C. D. (1973).Children's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  41. Stark, L. J., Spirito, A., Williams, C. A., and Guevremont, D. C. (1989). Common problems and coping strategies: I. Findings with normal adolescents.J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 17: 203–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Stern, M., and Zevon, M. A. (1990). Stress, coping, and family environment: The adolescent's response to naturally occurring Stressors.J. Adoles. Res. 5: 290–305.Google Scholar
  43. Stewart, A. J., Sokol, M., Healy, J. M., and Chester, N. L. (1986). Longitudinal studies of psychological consequences of life changes in children and adults.J. Personal. Social Psychol. 50: 143–157.Google Scholar
  44. Thoits, P. A. (1986). Social support as coping assistance.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 54: 416–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Vitaliano, P. P., Maiuro, R. D., and Russo, J. (1987). Raw versus relative scores in the assessment of coping strategies.J. Behav. Med. 10: 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Weinberger, D. (1989). Social-emotional adjustment in older children and adults: I. Psychometric properties of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory. Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles J. Holahan
    • 1
  • David P. Valentiner
    • 2
  • Rudolf H. Moos
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Texas at AustinAustin
  2. 2.Vanderbilt UniversityNashville
  3. 3.Department of Veterans AffairsStanford University Medical CenterPalo Alto

Personalised recommendations